Table of Contents

- 12.1. PostGIS Aggregate Functions
- 12.2. PostGIS Window Functions
- 12.3. PostGIS SQL-MM Compliant Functions
- 12.4. PostGIS Geography Support Functions
- 12.5. PostGIS Raster Support Functions
- 12.6. PostGIS Geometry / Geography / Raster Dump Functions
- 12.7. PostGIS Box Functions
- 12.8. PostGIS Functions that support 3D
- 12.9. PostGIS Curved Geometry Support Functions
- 12.10. PostGIS Polyhedral Surface Support Functions
- 12.11. PostGIS Function Support Matrix
- 12.12. New, Enhanced or changed PostGIS Functions

The functions below are spatial aggregate functions that are used in the same way as SQL aggregate function such as `sum`

and `average`

.

- ST_3DExtent - Aggregate function that returns the 3D bounding box of geometries.
- ST_3DUnion - Perform 3D union.
- ST_AsFlatGeobuf - Return a FlatGeobuf representation of a set of rows.
- ST_AsGeobuf - Return a Geobuf representation of a set of rows.
- ST_AsMVT - Aggregate function returning a MVT representation of a set of rows.
- ST_ClusterDBSCAN - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the DBSCAN algorithm.
- ST_ClusterIntersecting - Aggregate function that clusters input geometries into connected sets.
- ST_ClusterIntersectingWin - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry, clustering input geometries into connected sets.
- ST_ClusterKMeans - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the K-means algorithm.
- ST_ClusterWithin - Aggregate function that clusters geometries by separation distance.
- ST_ClusterWithinWin - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry, clustering using separation distance.
- ST_Collect - Creates a GeometryCollection or Multi* geometry from a set of geometries.
- ST_CoverageInvalidEdges - Window function that finds locations where polygons fail to form a valid coverage.
- ST_CoverageSimplify - Window function that simplifies the edges of a polygonal coverage.
- ST_CoverageUnion - Computes the union of a set of polygons forming a coverage by removing shared edges.
- ST_Extent - Aggregate function that returns the bounding box of geometries.
- ST_MakeLine - Creates a LineString from Point, MultiPoint, or LineString geometries.
- ST_MemUnion - Aggregate function which unions geometries in a memory-efficent but slower way
- ST_Polygonize - Computes a collection of polygons formed from the linework of a set of geometries.
- ST_SameAlignment - Returns true if rasters have same skew, scale, spatial ref, and offset (pixels can be put on same grid without cutting into pixels) and false if they don't with notice detailing issue.
- ST_Union - Computes a geometry representing the point-set union of the input geometries.
- ST_Union - Returns the union of a set of raster tiles into a single raster composed of 1 or more bands.
- TopoElementArray_Agg - Returns a topoelementarray for a set of element_id, type arrays (topoelements).

The functions below are spatial window functions that are used in the same way as SQL window functions such as `row_number()`

, `lead()`

, and `lag()`

. They must be followed by an `OVER()`

clause.

- ST_ClusterDBSCAN - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the DBSCAN algorithm.
- ST_ClusterIntersectingWin - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry, clustering input geometries into connected sets.
- ST_ClusterKMeans - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the K-means algorithm.
- ST_ClusterWithinWin - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry, clustering using separation distance.
- ST_CoverageInvalidEdges - Window function that finds locations where polygons fail to form a valid coverage.
- ST_CoverageSimplify - Window function that simplifies the edges of a polygonal coverage.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that conform to the SQL/MM 3 standard

- ST_3DArea - Computes area of 3D surface geometries. Will return 0 for solids.
- ST_3DDWithin - Tests if two 3D geometries are within a given 3D distance
- ST_3DDifference - Perform 3D difference
- ST_3DDistance - Returns the 3D cartesian minimum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DIntersection - Perform 3D intersection
- ST_3DIntersects - Tests if two geometries spatially intersect in 3D - only for points, linestrings, polygons, polyhedral surface (area)
- ST_3DLength - Returns the 3D length of a linear geometry.
- ST_3DPerimeter - Returns the 3D perimeter of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_3DUnion - Perform 3D union.
- ST_AddEdgeModFace - Add a new edge and, if in doing so it splits a face, modify the original face and add a new face.
- ST_AddEdgeNewFaces - Add a new edge and, if in doing so it splits a face, delete the original face and replace it with two new faces.
- ST_AddIsoEdge - Adds an isolated edge defined by geometry alinestring to a topology connecting two existing isolated nodes anode and anothernode and returns the edge id of the new edge.
- ST_AddIsoNode - Adds an isolated node to a face in a topology and returns the nodeid of the new node. If face is null, the node is still created.
- ST_Area - Returns the area of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_AsBinary - Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsGML - Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_AsText - Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata.
- ST_Boundary - Returns the boundary of a geometry.
- ST_Buffer - Computes a geometry covering all points within a given distance from a geometry.
- ST_Centroid - Returns the geometric center of a geometry.
- ST_ChangeEdgeGeom - Changes the shape of an edge without affecting the topology structure.
- ST_Contains - Tests if every point of B lies in A, and their interiors have a point in common
- ST_ConvexHull - Computes the convex hull of a geometry.
- ST_CoordDim - Return the coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- ST_CreateTopoGeo - Adds a collection of geometries to a given empty topology and returns a message detailing success.
- ST_Crosses - Tests if two geometries have some, but not all, interior points in common
- ST_CurveToLine - Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
- ST_Difference - Computes a geometry representing the part of geometry A that does not intersect geometry B.
- ST_Dimension - Returns the topological dimension of a geometry.
- ST_Disjoint - Tests if two geometries have no points in common
- ST_Distance - Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_EndPoint - Returns the last point of a LineString or CircularLineString.
- ST_Envelope - Returns a geometry representing the bounding box of a geometry.
- ST_Equals - Tests if two geometries include the same set of points
- ST_ExteriorRing - Returns a LineString representing the exterior ring of a Polygon.
- ST_GMLToSQL - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from GML representation. This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromGML
- ST_GeomCollFromText - Makes a collection Geometry from collection WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.
- ST_GeomFromText - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT).
- ST_GeomFromWKB - Creates a geometry instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) and optional SRID.
- ST_GeometryFromText - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT). This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromText
- ST_GeometryN - Return an element of a geometry collection.
- ST_GeometryType - Returns the SQL-MM type of a geometry as text.
- ST_GetFaceEdges - Returns a set of ordered edges that bound aface.
- ST_GetFaceGeometry - Returns the polygon in the given topology with the specified face id.
- ST_InitTopoGeo - Creates a new topology schema and registers it in the topology.topology table.
- ST_InteriorRingN - Returns the Nth interior ring (hole) of a Polygon.
- ST_Intersection - Computes a geometry representing the shared portion of geometries A and B.
- ST_Intersects - Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_IsClosed - Tests if a LineStrings's start and end points are coincident. For a PolyhedralSurface tests if it is closed (volumetric).
- ST_IsEmpty - Tests if a geometry is empty.
- ST_IsRing - Tests if a LineString is closed and simple.
- ST_IsSimple - Tests if a geometry has no points of self-intersection or self-tangency.
- ST_IsValid - Tests if a geometry is well-formed in 2D.
- ST_Length - Returns the 2D length of a linear geometry.
- ST_LineFromText - Makes a Geometry from WKT representation with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.
- ST_LineFromWKB - Makes a LINESTRING from WKB with the given SRID
- ST_LinestringFromWKB - Makes a geometry from WKB with the given SRID.
- ST_LocateAlong - Returns the point(s) on a geometry that match a measure value.
- ST_LocateBetween - Returns the portions of a geometry that match a measure range.
- ST_M - Returns the M coordinate of a Point.
- ST_MLineFromText - Return a specified ST_MultiLineString value from WKT representation.
- ST_MPointFromText - Makes a Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.
- ST_MPolyFromText - Makes a MultiPolygon Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.
- ST_ModEdgeHeal - Heals two edges by deleting the node connecting them, modifying the first edgeand deleting the second edge. Returns the id of the deleted node.
- ST_ModEdgeSplit - Split an edge by creating a new node along an existing edge, modifying the original edge and adding a new edge.
- ST_MoveIsoNode - Moves an isolated node in a topology from one point to another. If new apoint geometry exists as a node an error is thrown. Returns description of move.
- ST_NewEdgeHeal - Heals two edges by deleting the node connecting them, deleting both edges,and replacing them with an edge whose direction is the same as the firstedge provided.
- ST_NewEdgesSplit - Split an edge by creating a new node along an existing edge, deleting the original edge and replacing it with two new edges. Returns the id of the new node created that joins the new edges.
- ST_NumGeometries - Returns the number of elements in a geometry collection.
- ST_NumInteriorRings - Returns the number of interior rings (holes) of a Polygon.
- ST_NumPatches - Return the number of faces on a Polyhedral Surface. Will return null for non-polyhedral geometries.
- ST_NumPoints - Returns the number of points in a LineString or CircularString.
- ST_OrderingEquals - Tests if two geometries represent the same geometry and have points in the same directional order
- ST_Overlaps - Tests if two geometries have the same dimension and intersect, but each has at least one point not in the other
- ST_PatchN - Returns the Nth geometry (face) of a PolyhedralSurface.
- ST_Perimeter - Returns the length of the boundary of a polygonal geometry or geography.
- ST_Point - Creates a Point with X, Y and SRID values.
- ST_PointFromText - Makes a point Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to unknown.
- ST_PointFromWKB - Makes a geometry from WKB with the given SRID
- ST_PointN - Returns the Nth point in the first LineString or circular LineString in a geometry.
- ST_PointOnSurface - Computes a point guaranteed to lie in a polygon, or on a geometry.
- ST_Polygon - Creates a Polygon from a LineString with a specified SRID.
- ST_PolygonFromText - Makes a Geometry from WKT with the given SRID. If SRID is not given, it defaults to 0.
- ST_Relate - Tests if two geometries have a topological relationship matching an Intersection Matrix pattern, or computes their Intersection Matrix
- ST_RemEdgeModFace - Removes an edge, and if the edge separates two facesdeletes one face and modifies the other face to cover the space of both.
- ST_RemEdgeNewFace - Removes an edge and, if the removed edge separated two faces,delete the original faces and replace them with a new face.
- ST_RemoveIsoEdge - Removes an isolated edge and returns description of action. If the edge is not isolated, then an exception is thrown.
- ST_RemoveIsoNode - Removes an isolated node and returns description of action. If the node is not isolated (is start or end of an edge), then an exception is thrown.
- ST_SRID - Returns the spatial reference identifier for a geometry.
- ST_StartPoint - Returns the first point of a LineString.
- ST_SymDifference - Computes a geometry representing the portions of geometries A and B that do not intersect.
- ST_Touches - Tests if two geometries have at least one point in common, but their interiors do not intersect
- ST_Transform - Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system.
- ST_Union - Computes a geometry representing the point-set union of the input geometries.
- ST_Volume - Computes the volume of a 3D solid. If applied to surface (even closed) geometries will return 0.
- ST_WKBToSQL - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Binary representation (WKB). This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromWKB that takes no srid
- ST_WKTToSQL - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT). This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromText
- ST_Within - Tests if every point of A lies in B, and their interiors have a point in common
- ST_X - Returns the X coordinate of a Point.
- ST_Y - Returns the Y coordinate of a Point.
- ST_Z - Returns the Z coordinate of a Point.
- TG_ST_SRID - Returns the spatial reference identifier for a topogeometry.

The functions and operators given below are PostGIS functions/operators that take as input or return as output a geography data type object.

Functions with a (T) are not native geodetic functions, and use a ST_Transform call to and from geometry to do the operation. As a result, they may not behave as expected when going over dateline, poles, and for large geometries or geometry pairs that cover more than one UTM zone. Basic transform - (favoring UTM, Lambert Azimuthal (North/South), and falling back on mercator in worst case scenario) |

- ST_Area - Returns the area of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_AsBinary - Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsEWKT - Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsGML - Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_AsGeoJSON - Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.
- ST_AsKML - Return the geometry as a KML element.
- ST_AsSVG - Returns SVG path data for a geometry.
- ST_AsText - Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata.
- ST_Azimuth - Returns the north-based azimuth of a line between two points.
- ST_Buffer - Computes a geometry covering all points within a given distance from a geometry.
- ST_Centroid - Returns the geometric center of a geometry.
- ST_ClosestPoint - Returns the 2D point on g1 that is closest to g2. This is the first point of the shortest line from one geometry to the other.
- ST_CoveredBy - Tests if every point of A lies in B
- ST_Covers - Tests if every point of B lies in A
- ST_DWithin - Tests if two geometries are within a given distance
- ST_Distance - Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_GeogFromText - Return a specified geography value from Well-Known Text representation or extended (WKT).
- ST_GeogFromWKB - Creates a geography instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) or extended Well Known Binary (EWKB).
- ST_GeographyFromText - Return a specified geography value from Well-Known Text representation or extended (WKT).
- = - Returns TRUE if the coordinates and coordinate order geometry/geography A are the same as the coordinates and coordinate order of geometry/geography B.
- ST_Intersection - Computes a geometry representing the shared portion of geometries A and B.
- ST_Intersects - Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_Length - Returns the 2D length of a linear geometry.
- ST_LineInterpolatePoint - Returns a point interpolated along a line at a fractional location.
- ST_LineInterpolatePoints - Returns points interpolated along a line at a fractional interval.
- ST_LineLocatePoint - Returns the fractional location of the closest point on a line to a point.
- ST_LineSubstring - Returns the part of a line between two fractional locations.
- ST_Perimeter - Returns the length of the boundary of a polygonal geometry or geography.
- ST_Project - Returns a point projected from a start point by a distance and bearing (azimuth).
- ST_Segmentize - Returns a modified geometry/geography having no segment longer than a given distance.
- ST_ShortestLine - Returns the 2D shortest line between two geometries
- ST_Summary - Returns a text summary of the contents of a geometry.
- <-> - Returns the 2D distance between A and B.
- && - Returns TRUE if A's 2D bounding box intersects B's 2D bounding box.

The functions and operators given below are PostGIS functions/operators that take as input or return as output a raster data type object. Listed in alphabetical order.

- Box3D - Returns the box 3d representation of the enclosing box of the raster.
- @ - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is contained by B's. Uses double precision bounding box.
- ~ - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is contains B's. Uses double precision bounding box.
- = - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is the same as B's. Uses double precision bounding box.
- && - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box intersects B's bounding box.
- &< - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is to the left of B's.
- &> - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is to the right of B's.
- ~= - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is the same as B's.
- ST_Retile - Return a set of configured tiles from an arbitrarily tiled raster coverage.
- ST_AddBand - Returns a raster with the new band(s) of given type added with given initial value in the given index location. If no index is specified, the band is added to the end.
- ST_AsBinary/ST_AsWKB - Return the Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the raster.
- ST_AsGDALRaster - Return the raster tile in the designated GDAL Raster format. Raster formats are one of those supported by your compiled library. Use ST_GDALDrivers() to get a list of formats supported by your library.
- ST_AsHexWKB - Return the Well-Known Binary (WKB) in Hex representation of the raster.
- ST_AsJPEG - Return the raster tile selected bands as a single Joint Photographic Exports Group (JPEG) image (byte array). If no band is specified and 1 or more than 3 bands, then only the first band is used. If only 3 bands then all 3 bands are used and mapped to RGB.
- ST_AsPNG - Return the raster tile selected bands as a single portable network graphics (PNG) image (byte array). If 1, 3, or 4 bands in raster and no bands are specified, then all bands are used. If more 2 or more than 4 bands and no bands specified, then only band 1 is used. Bands are mapped to RGB or RGBA space.
- ST_AsRaster - Converts a PostGIS geometry to a PostGIS raster.
- ST_AsTIFF - Return the raster selected bands as a single TIFF image (byte array). If no band is specified or any of specified bands does not exist in the raster, then will try to use all bands.
- ST_Aspect - Returns the aspect (in degrees by default) of an elevation raster band. Useful for analyzing terrain.
- ST_Band - Returns one or more bands of an existing raster as a new raster. Useful for building new rasters from existing rasters.
- ST_BandFileSize - Returns the file size of a band stored in file system. If no bandnum specified, 1 is assumed.
- ST_BandFileTimestamp - Returns the file timestamp of a band stored in file system. If no bandnum specified, 1 is assumed.
- ST_BandIsNoData - Returns true if the band is filled with only nodata values.
- ST_BandMetaData - Returns basic meta data for a specific raster band. band num 1 is assumed if none-specified.
- ST_BandNoDataValue - Returns the value in a given band that represents no data. If no band num 1 is assumed.
- ST_BandPath - Returns system file path to a band stored in file system. If no bandnum specified, 1 is assumed.
- ST_BandPixelType - Returns the type of pixel for given band. If no bandnum specified, 1 is assumed.
- ST_Clip - Returns the raster clipped by the input geometry. If band number not is specified, all bands are processed. If crop is not specified or TRUE, the output raster is cropped.
- ST_ColorMap - Creates a new raster of up to four 8BUI bands (grayscale, RGB, RGBA) from the source raster and a specified band. Band 1 is assumed if not specified.
- ST_Contains - Return true if no points of raster rastB lie in the exterior of raster rastA and at least one point of the interior of rastB lies in the interior of rastA.
- ST_ContainsProperly - Return true if rastB intersects the interior of rastA but not the boundary or exterior of rastA.
- ST_Contour - Generates a set of vector contours from the provided raster band, using the GDAL contouring algorithm.
- ST_ConvexHull - Return the convex hull geometry of the raster including pixel values equal to BandNoDataValue. For regular shaped and non-skewed rasters, this gives the same result as ST_Envelope so only useful for irregularly shaped or skewed rasters.
- ST_Count - Returns the number of pixels in a given band of a raster or raster coverage. If no band is specified defaults to band 1. If exclude_nodata_value is set to true, will only count pixels that are not equal to the nodata value.
- ST_CountAgg - Aggregate. Returns the number of pixels in a given band of a set of rasters. If no band is specified defaults to band 1. If exclude_nodata_value is set to true, will only count pixels that are not equal to the NODATA value.
- ST_CoveredBy - Return true if no points of raster rastA lie outside raster rastB.
- ST_Covers - Return true if no points of raster rastB lie outside raster rastA.
- ST_DFullyWithin - Return true if rasters rastA and rastB are fully within the specified distance of each other.
- ST_DWithin - Return true if rasters rastA and rastB are within the specified distance of each other.
- ST_Disjoint - Return true if raster rastA does not spatially intersect rastB.
- ST_DumpAsPolygons - Returns a set of geomval (geom,val) rows, from a given raster band. If no band number is specified, band num defaults to 1.
- ST_DumpValues - Get the values of the specified band as a 2-dimension array.
- ST_Envelope - Returns the polygon representation of the extent of the raster.
- ST_FromGDALRaster - Returns a raster from a supported GDAL raster file.
- ST_GeoReference - Returns the georeference meta data in GDAL or ESRI format as commonly seen in a world file. Default is GDAL.
- ST_Grayscale - Creates a new one-8BUI band raster from the source raster and specified bands representing Red, Green and Blue
- ST_HasNoBand - Returns true if there is no band with given band number. If no band number is specified, then band number 1 is assumed.
- ST_Height - Returns the height of the raster in pixels.
- ST_HillShade - Returns the hypothetical illumination of an elevation raster band using provided azimuth, altitude, brightness and scale inputs.
- ST_Histogram - Returns a set of record summarizing a raster or raster coverage data distribution separate bin ranges. Number of bins are autocomputed if not specified.
- ST_InterpolateRaster - Interpolates a gridded surface based on an input set of 3-d points, using the X- and Y-values to position the points on the grid and the Z-value of the points as the surface elevation.
- ST_Intersection - Returns a raster or a set of geometry-pixelvalue pairs representing the shared portion of two rasters or the geometrical intersection of a vectorization of the raster and a geometry.
- ST_Intersects - Return true if raster rastA spatially intersects raster rastB.
- ST_IsEmpty - Returns true if the raster is empty (width = 0 and height = 0). Otherwise, returns false.
- ST_MakeEmptyCoverage - Cover georeferenced area with a grid of empty raster tiles.
- ST_MakeEmptyRaster - Returns an empty raster (having no bands) of given dimensions (width & height), upperleft X and Y, pixel size and rotation (scalex, scaley, skewx & skewy) and reference system (srid). If a raster is passed in, returns a new raster with the same size, alignment and SRID. If srid is left out, the spatial ref is set to unknown (0).
- ST_MapAlgebra (callback function version) - Callback function version - Returns a one-band raster given one or more input rasters, band indexes and one user-specified callback function.
- ST_MapAlgebraExpr - 1 raster band version: Creates a new one band raster formed by applying a valid PostgreSQL algebraic operation on the input raster band and of pixeltype provided. Band 1 is assumed if no band is specified.
- ST_MapAlgebraExpr - 2 raster band version: Creates a new one band raster formed by applying a valid PostgreSQL algebraic operation on the two input raster bands and of pixeltype provided. band 1 of each raster is assumed if no band numbers are specified. The resulting raster will be aligned (scale, skew and pixel corners) on the grid defined by the first raster and have its extent defined by the "extenttype" parameter. Values for "extenttype" can be: INTERSECTION, UNION, FIRST, SECOND.
- ST_MapAlgebraFct - 1 band version - Creates a new one band raster formed by applying a valid PostgreSQL function on the input raster band and of pixeltype prodived. Band 1 is assumed if no band is specified.
- ST_MapAlgebraFct - 2 band version - Creates a new one band raster formed by applying a valid PostgreSQL function on the 2 input raster bands and of pixeltype prodived. Band 1 is assumed if no band is specified. Extent type defaults to INTERSECTION if not specified.
- ST_MapAlgebraFctNgb - 1-band version: Map Algebra Nearest Neighbor using user-defined PostgreSQL function. Return a raster which values are the result of a PLPGSQL user function involving a neighborhood of values from the input raster band.
- ST_MapAlgebra (expression version) - Expression version - Returns a one-band raster given one or two input rasters, band indexes and one or more user-specified SQL expressions.
- ST_MemSize - Returns the amount of space (in bytes) the raster takes.
- ST_MetaData - Returns basic meta data about a raster object such as pixel size, rotation (skew), upper, lower left, etc.
- ST_MinConvexHull - Return the convex hull geometry of the raster excluding NODATA pixels.
- ST_NearestValue - Returns the nearest non-NODATA value of a given band's pixel specified by a columnx and rowy or a geometric point expressed in the same spatial reference coordinate system as the raster.
- ST_Neighborhood - Returns a 2-D double precision array of the non-NODATA values around a given band's pixel specified by either a columnX and rowY or a geometric point expressed in the same spatial reference coordinate system as the raster.
- ST_NotSameAlignmentReason - Returns text stating if rasters are aligned and if not aligned, a reason why.
- ST_NumBands - Returns the number of bands in the raster object.
- ST_Overlaps - Return true if raster rastA and rastB intersect but one does not completely contain the other.
- ST_PixelAsCentroid - Returns the centroid (point geometry) of the area represented by a pixel.
- ST_PixelAsCentroids - Returns the centroid (point geometry) for each pixel of a raster band along with the value, the X and the Y raster coordinates of each pixel. The point geometry is the centroid of the area represented by a pixel.
- ST_PixelAsPoint - Returns a point geometry of the pixel's upper-left corner.
- ST_PixelAsPoints - Returns a point geometry for each pixel of a raster band along with the value, the X and the Y raster coordinates of each pixel. The coordinates of the point geometry are of the pixel's upper-left corner.
- ST_PixelAsPolygon - Returns the polygon geometry that bounds the pixel for a particular row and column.
- ST_PixelAsPolygons - Returns the polygon geometry that bounds every pixel of a raster band along with the value, the X and the Y raster coordinates of each pixel.
- ST_PixelHeight - Returns the pixel height in geometric units of the spatial reference system.
- ST_PixelOfValue - Get the columnx, rowy coordinates of the pixel whose value equals the search value.
- ST_PixelWidth - Returns the pixel width in geometric units of the spatial reference system.
- ST_Polygon - Returns a multipolygon geometry formed by the union of pixels that have a pixel value that is not no data value. If no band number is specified, band num defaults to 1.
- ST_Quantile - Compute quantiles for a raster or raster table coverage in the context of the sample or population. Thus, a value could be examined to be at the raster's 25%, 50%, 75% percentile.
- ST_RastFromHexWKB - Return a raster value from a Hex representation of Well-Known Binary (WKB) raster.
- ST_RastFromWKB - Return a raster value from a Well-Known Binary (WKB) raster.
- ST_RasterToWorldCoord - Returns the raster's upper left corner as geometric X and Y (longitude and latitude) given a column and row. Column and row starts at 1.
- ST_RasterToWorldCoordX - Returns the geometric X coordinate upper left of a raster, column and row. Numbering of columns and rows starts at 1.
- ST_RasterToWorldCoordY - Returns the geometric Y coordinate upper left corner of a raster, column and row. Numbering of columns and rows starts at 1.
- ST_Reclass - Creates a new raster composed of band types reclassified from original. The nband is the band to be changed. If nband is not specified assumed to be 1. All other bands are returned unchanged. Use case: convert a 16BUI band to a 8BUI and so forth for simpler rendering as viewable formats.
- ST_Resample - Resample a raster using a specified resampling algorithm, new dimensions, an arbitrary grid corner and a set of raster georeferencing attributes defined or borrowed from another raster.
- ST_Rescale - Resample a raster by adjusting only its scale (or pixel size). New pixel values are computed using the NearestNeighbor (english or american spelling), Bilinear, Cubic, CubicSpline, Lanczos, Max or Min resampling algorithm. Default is NearestNeighbor.
- ST_Resize - Resize a raster to a new width/height
- ST_Reskew - Resample a raster by adjusting only its skew (or rotation parameters). New pixel values are computed using the NearestNeighbor (english or american spelling), Bilinear, Cubic, CubicSpline or Lanczos resampling algorithm. Default is NearestNeighbor.
- ST_Rotation - Returns the rotation of the raster in radian.
- ST_Roughness - Returns a raster with the calculated "roughness" of a DEM.
- ST_SRID - Returns the spatial reference identifier of the raster as defined in spatial_ref_sys table.
- ST_SameAlignment - Returns true if rasters have same skew, scale, spatial ref, and offset (pixels can be put on same grid without cutting into pixels) and false if they don't with notice detailing issue.
- ST_ScaleX - Returns the X component of the pixel width in units of coordinate reference system.
- ST_ScaleY - Returns the Y component of the pixel height in units of coordinate reference system.
- ST_SetBandIndex - Update the external band number of an out-db band
- ST_SetBandIsNoData - Sets the isnodata flag of the band to TRUE.
- ST_SetBandNoDataValue - Sets the value for the given band that represents no data. Band 1 is assumed if no band is specified. To mark a band as having no nodata value, set the nodata value = NULL.
- ST_SetBandPath - Update the external path and band number of an out-db band
- ST_SetGeoReference - Set Georeference 6 georeference parameters in a single call. Numbers should be separated by white space. Accepts inputs in GDAL or ESRI format. Default is GDAL.
- ST_SetM - Returns a geometry with the same X/Y coordinates as the input geometry, and values from the raster copied into the M dimension using the requested resample algorithm.
- ST_SetRotation - Set the rotation of the raster in radian.
- ST_SetSRID - Sets the SRID of a raster to a particular integer srid defined in the spatial_ref_sys table.
- ST_SetScale - Sets the X and Y size of pixels in units of coordinate reference system. Number units/pixel width/height.
- ST_SetSkew - Sets the georeference X and Y skew (or rotation parameter). If only one is passed in, sets X and Y to the same value.
- ST_SetUpperLeft - Sets the value of the upper left corner of the pixel of the raster to projected X and Y coordinates.
- ST_SetValue - Returns modified raster resulting from setting the value of a given band in a given columnx, rowy pixel or the pixels that intersect a particular geometry. Band numbers start at 1 and assumed to be 1 if not specified.
- ST_SetValues - Returns modified raster resulting from setting the values of a given band.
- ST_SetZ - Returns a geometry with the same X/Y coordinates as the input geometry, and values from the raster copied into the Z dimension using the requested resample algorithm.
- ST_SkewX - Returns the georeference X skew (or rotation parameter).
- ST_SkewY - Returns the georeference Y skew (or rotation parameter).
- ST_Slope - Returns the slope (in degrees by default) of an elevation raster band. Useful for analyzing terrain.
- ST_SnapToGrid - Resample a raster by snapping it to a grid. New pixel values are computed using the NearestNeighbor (english or american spelling), Bilinear, Cubic, CubicSpline or Lanczos resampling algorithm. Default is NearestNeighbor.
- ST_Summary - Returns a text summary of the contents of the raster.
- ST_SummaryStats - Returns summarystats consisting of count, sum, mean, stddev, min, max for a given raster band of a raster or raster coverage. Band 1 is assumed is no band is specified.
- ST_SummaryStatsAgg - Aggregate. Returns summarystats consisting of count, sum, mean, stddev, min, max for a given raster band of a set of raster. Band 1 is assumed is no band is specified.
- ST_TPI - Returns a raster with the calculated Topographic Position Index.
- ST_TRI - Returns a raster with the calculated Terrain Ruggedness Index.
- ST_Tile - Returns a set of rasters resulting from the split of the input raster based upon the desired dimensions of the output rasters.
- ST_Touches - Return true if raster rastA and rastB have at least one point in common but their interiors do not intersect.
- ST_Transform - Reprojects a raster in a known spatial reference system to another known spatial reference system using specified resampling algorithm. Options are NearestNeighbor, Bilinear, Cubic, CubicSpline, Lanczos defaulting to NearestNeighbor.
- ST_Union - Returns the union of a set of raster tiles into a single raster composed of 1 or more bands.
- ST_UpperLeftX - Returns the upper left X coordinate of raster in projected spatial ref.
- ST_UpperLeftY - Returns the upper left Y coordinate of raster in projected spatial ref.
- ST_Value - Returns the value of a given band in a given columnx, rowy pixel or at a particular geometric point. Band numbers start at 1 and assumed to be 1 if not specified. If exclude_nodata_value is set to false, then all pixels include nodata pixels are considered to intersect and return value. If exclude_nodata_value is not passed in then reads it from metadata of raster.
- ST_ValueCount - Returns a set of records containing a pixel band value and count of the number of pixels in a given band of a raster (or a raster coverage) that have a given set of values. If no band is specified defaults to band 1. By default nodata value pixels are not counted. and all other values in the pixel are output and pixel band values are rounded to the nearest integer.
- ST_Width - Returns the width of the raster in pixels.
- ST_Within - Return true if no points of raster rastA lie in the exterior of raster rastB and at least one point of the interior of rastA lies in the interior of rastB.
- ST_WorldToRasterCoord - Returns the upper left corner as column and row given geometric X and Y (longitude and latitude) or a point geometry expressed in the spatial reference coordinate system of the raster.
- ST_WorldToRasterCoordX - Returns the column in the raster of the point geometry (pt) or a X and Y world coordinate (xw, yw) represented in world spatial reference system of raster.
- ST_WorldToRasterCoordY - Returns the row in the raster of the point geometry (pt) or a X and Y world coordinate (xw, yw) represented in world spatial reference system of raster.
- UpdateRasterSRID - Change the SRID of all rasters in the user-specified column and table.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that take as input or return as output a set of or single geometry_dump or geomval data type object.

- ST_DumpAsPolygons - Returns a set of geomval (geom,val) rows, from a given raster band. If no band number is specified, band num defaults to 1.
- ST_Intersection - Returns a raster or a set of geometry-pixelvalue pairs representing the shared portion of two rasters or the geometrical intersection of a vectorization of the raster and a geometry.
- ST_Dump - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the components of a geometry.
- ST_DumpPoints - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the coordinates in a geometry.
- ST_DumpRings - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the exterior and interior rings of a Polygon.
- ST_DumpSegments - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the segments in a geometry.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that take as input or return as output the box* family of PostGIS spatial types. The box family of types consists of box2d, and box3d

- Box2D - Returns a BOX2D representing the 2D extent of a geometry.
- Box3D - Returns a BOX3D representing the 3D extent of a geometry.
- Box3D - Returns the box 3d representation of the enclosing box of the raster.
- ST_3DExtent - Aggregate function that returns the 3D bounding box of geometries.
- ST_3DMakeBox - Creates a BOX3D defined by two 3D point geometries.
- ST_AsMVTGeom - Transforms a geometry into the coordinate space of a MVT tile.
- ST_AsTWKB - Returns the geometry as TWKB, aka "Tiny Well-Known Binary"
- ST_Box2dFromGeoHash - Return a BOX2D from a GeoHash string.
- ST_ClipByBox2D - Computes the portion of a geometry falling within a rectangle.
- ST_EstimatedExtent - Returns the estimated extent of a spatial table.
- ST_Expand - Returns a bounding box expanded from another bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Extent - Aggregate function that returns the bounding box of geometries.
- ST_MakeBox2D - Creates a BOX2D defined by two 2D point geometries.
- ST_XMax - Returns the X maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_XMin - Returns the X minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_YMax - Returns the Y maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_YMin - Returns the Y minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_ZMax - Returns the Z maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_ZMin - Returns the Z minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- RemoveUnusedPrimitives - Removes topology primitives which not needed to define existing TopoGeometry objects.
- ValidateTopology - Returns a set of validatetopology_returntype objects detailing issues with topology.
- ~(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains another 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- ~(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains a geometry's 2D bonding box.
- ~(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bonding box contains a 2D float precision bounding box (GIDX).
- @(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into another 2D float precision bounding box.
- @(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into a geometry's 2D bounding box.
- @(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bounding box is contained into a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- &&(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if two 2D float precision bounding boxes (BOX2DF) intersect each other.
- &&(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) intersects a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box.
- &&(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box intersects a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that do not throw away the Z-Index.

- AddGeometryColumn - Adds a geometry column to an existing table.
- Box3D - Returns a BOX3D representing the 3D extent of a geometry.
- CG_Visibility - Compute a visibility polygon from a point or a segment in a polygon geometry
- DropGeometryColumn - Removes a geometry column from a spatial table.
- GeometryType - Returns the type of a geometry as text.
- ST_3DArea - Computes area of 3D surface geometries. Will return 0 for solids.
- ST_3DClosestPoint - Returns the 3D point on g1 that is closest to g2. This is the first point of the 3D shortest line.
- ST_3DConvexHull - Computes the 3D convex hull of a geometry.
- ST_3DDFullyWithin - Tests if two 3D geometries are entirely within a given 3D distance
- ST_3DDWithin - Tests if two 3D geometries are within a given 3D distance
- ST_3DDifference - Perform 3D difference
- ST_3DDistance - Returns the 3D cartesian minimum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DExtent - Aggregate function that returns the 3D bounding box of geometries.
- ST_3DIntersection - Perform 3D intersection
- ST_3DIntersects - Tests if two geometries spatially intersect in 3D - only for points, linestrings, polygons, polyhedral surface (area)
- ST_3DLength - Returns the 3D length of a linear geometry.
- ST_3DLineInterpolatePoint - Returns a point interpolated along a 3D line at a fractional location.
- ST_3DLongestLine - Returns the 3D longest line between two geometries
- ST_3DMaxDistance - Returns the 3D cartesian maximum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DPerimeter - Returns the 3D perimeter of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_3DShortestLine - Returns the 3D shortest line between two geometries
- ST_3DUnion - Perform 3D union.
- ST_AddMeasure - Interpolates measures along a linear geometry.
- ST_AddPoint - Add a point to a LineString.
- ST_Affine - Apply a 3D affine transformation to a geometry.
- ST_ApproximateMedialAxis - Compute the approximate medial axis of an areal geometry.
- ST_AsBinary - Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsEWKB - Return the Extended Well-Known Binary (EWKB) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsEWKT - Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsGML - Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_AsGeoJSON - Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.
- ST_AsHEXEWKB - Returns a Geometry in HEXEWKB format (as text) using either little-endian (NDR) or big-endian (XDR) encoding.
- ST_AsKML - Return the geometry as a KML element.
- ST_AsX3D - Returns a Geometry in X3D xml node element format: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML
- ST_Boundary - Returns the boundary of a geometry.
- ST_BoundingDiagonal - Returns the diagonal of a geometry's bounding box.
- ST_CPAWithin - Tests if the closest point of approach of two trajectoriesis within the specified distance.
- ST_ChaikinSmoothing - Returns a smoothed version of a geometry, using the Chaikin algorithm
- ST_ClosestPointOfApproach - Returns a measure at the closest point of approach of two trajectories.
- ST_Collect - Creates a GeometryCollection or Multi* geometry from a set of geometries.
- ST_ConstrainedDelaunayTriangles - Return a constrained Delaunay triangulation around the given input geometry.
- ST_ConvexHull - Computes the convex hull of a geometry.
- ST_CoordDim - Return the coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- ST_CurveToLine - Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
- ST_DelaunayTriangles - Returns the Delaunay triangulation of the vertices of a geometry.
- ST_Difference - Computes a geometry representing the part of geometry A that does not intersect geometry B.
- ST_DistanceCPA - Returns the distance between the closest point of approach of two trajectories.
- ST_Dump - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the components of a geometry.
- ST_DumpPoints - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the coordinates in a geometry.
- ST_DumpRings - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the exterior and interior rings of a Polygon.
- ST_DumpSegments - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the segments in a geometry.
- ST_EndPoint - Returns the last point of a LineString or CircularLineString.
- ST_ExteriorRing - Returns a LineString representing the exterior ring of a Polygon.
- ST_Extrude - Extrude a surface to a related volume
- ST_FlipCoordinates - Returns a version of a geometry with X and Y axis flipped.
- ST_Force2D - Force the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode".
- ST_ForceCurve - Upcast a geometry into its curved type, if applicable.
- ST_ForceLHR - Force LHR orientation
- ST_ForcePolygonCCW - Orients all exterior rings counter-clockwise and all interior rings clockwise.
- ST_ForcePolygonCW - Orients all exterior rings clockwise and all interior rings counter-clockwise.
- ST_ForceRHR - Force the orientation of the vertices in a polygon to follow the Right-Hand-Rule.
- ST_ForceSFS - Force the geometries to use SFS 1.1 geometry types only.
- ST_Force_3D - Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.
- ST_Force_3DZ - Force the geometries into XYZ mode.
- ST_Force_4D - Force the geometries into XYZM mode.
- ST_Force_Collection - Convert the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.
- ST_GeomFromEWKB - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Binary representation (EWKB).
- ST_GeomFromEWKT - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Text representation (EWKT).
- ST_GeomFromGML - Takes as input GML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_GeomFromGeoJSON - Takes as input a geojson representation of a geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_GeomFromKML - Takes as input KML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_GeometricMedian - Returns the geometric median of a MultiPoint.
- ST_GeometryN - Return an element of a geometry collection.
- ST_GeometryType - Returns the SQL-MM type of a geometry as text.
- ST_HasArc - Tests if a geometry contains a circular arc
- ST_HasM - Checks if a geometry has an M (measure) dimension.
- ST_HasZ - Checks if a geometry has a Z dimension.
- ST_InteriorRingN - Returns the Nth interior ring (hole) of a Polygon.
- ST_InterpolatePoint - Returns the interpolated measure of a geometry closest to a point.
- ST_Intersection - Computes a geometry representing the shared portion of geometries A and B.
- ST_IsClosed - Tests if a LineStrings's start and end points are coincident. For a PolyhedralSurface tests if it is closed (volumetric).
- ST_IsCollection - Tests if a geometry is a geometry collection type.
- ST_IsPlanar - Check if a surface is or not planar
- ST_IsPolygonCCW - Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented counter-clockwise and interior rings oriented clockwise.
- ST_IsPolygonCW - Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented clockwise and interior rings oriented counter-clockwise.
- ST_IsSimple - Tests if a geometry has no points of self-intersection or self-tangency.
- ST_IsSolid - Test if the geometry is a solid. No validity check is performed.
- ST_IsValidTrajectory - Tests if the geometry is a valid trajectory.
- ST_Length_Spheroid - Returns the 2D or 3D length/perimeter of a lon/lat geometry on a spheroid.
- ST_LineFromMultiPoint - Creates a LineString from a MultiPoint geometry.
- ST_LineInterpolatePoint - Returns a point interpolated along a line at a fractional location.
- ST_LineInterpolatePoints - Returns points interpolated along a line at a fractional interval.
- ST_LineSubstring - Returns the part of a line between two fractional locations.
- ST_LineToCurve - Converts a linear geometry to a curved geometry.
- ST_LocateBetweenElevations - Returns the portions of a geometry that lie in an elevation (Z) range.
- ST_M - Returns the M coordinate of a Point.
- ST_MakeLine - Creates a LineString from Point, MultiPoint, or LineString geometries.
- ST_MakePoint - Creates a 2D, 3DZ or 4D Point.
- ST_MakePolygon - Creates a Polygon from a shell and optional list of holes.
- ST_MakeSolid - Cast the geometry into a solid. No check is performed. To obtain a valid solid, the input geometry must be a closed Polyhedral Surface or a closed TIN.
- ST_MakeValid - Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.
- ST_MemSize - Returns the amount of memory space a geometry takes.
- ST_MemUnion - Aggregate function which unions geometries in a memory-efficent but slower way
- ST_NDims - Returns the coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- ST_NPoints - Returns the number of points (vertices) in a geometry.
- ST_NRings - Returns the number of rings in a polygonal geometry.
- ST_Node - Nodes a collection of lines.
- ST_NumGeometries - Returns the number of elements in a geometry collection.
- ST_NumPatches - Return the number of faces on a Polyhedral Surface. Will return null for non-polyhedral geometries.
- ST_Orientation - Determine surface orientation
- ST_PatchN - Returns the Nth geometry (face) of a PolyhedralSurface.
- ST_PointFromWKB - Makes a geometry from WKB with the given SRID
- ST_PointN - Returns the Nth point in the first LineString or circular LineString in a geometry.
- ST_PointOnSurface - Computes a point guaranteed to lie in a polygon, or on a geometry.
- ST_Points - Returns a MultiPoint containing the coordinates of a geometry.
- ST_Polygon - Creates a Polygon from a LineString with a specified SRID.
- ST_RemovePoint - Remove a point from a linestring.
- ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints - Returns a version of a geometry with duplicate points removed.
- ST_Reverse - Return the geometry with vertex order reversed.
- ST_Rotate - Rotates a geometry about an origin point.
- ST_RotateX - Rotates a geometry about the X axis.
- ST_RotateY - Rotates a geometry about the Y axis.
- ST_RotateZ - Rotates a geometry about the Z axis.
- ST_Scale - Scales a geometry by given factors.
- ST_Scroll - Change start point of a closed LineString.
- ST_SetPoint - Replace point of a linestring with a given point.
- ST_ShiftLongitude - Shifts the longitude coordinates of a geometry between -180..180 and 0..360.
- ST_SnapToGrid - Snap all points of the input geometry to a regular grid.
- ST_StartPoint - Returns the first point of a LineString.
- ST_StraightSkeleton - Compute a straight skeleton from a geometry
- ST_SwapOrdinates - Returns a version of the given geometry with given ordinate values swapped.
- ST_SymDifference - Computes a geometry representing the portions of geometries A and B that do not intersect.
- ST_Tesselate - Perform surface Tesselation of a polygon or polyhedralsurface and returns as a TIN or collection of TINS
- ST_TransScale - Translates and scales a geometry by given offsets and factors.
- ST_Translate - Translates a geometry by given offsets.
- ST_UnaryUnion - Computes the union of the components of a single geometry.
- ST_Union - Computes a geometry representing the point-set union of the input geometries.
- ST_Volume - Computes the volume of a 3D solid. If applied to surface (even closed) geometries will return 0.
- ST_WrapX - Wrap a geometry around an X value.
- ST_X - Returns the X coordinate of a Point.
- ST_XMax - Returns the X maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_XMin - Returns the X minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Y - Returns the Y coordinate of a Point.
- ST_YMax - Returns the Y maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_YMin - Returns the Y minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Z - Returns the Z coordinate of a Point.
- ST_ZMax - Returns the Z maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_ZMin - Returns the Z minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Zmflag - Returns a code indicating the ZM coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- TG_Equals - Returns true if two topogeometries are composed of the same topology primitives.
- TG_Intersects - Returns true if any pair of primitives from the two topogeometries intersect.
- UpdateGeometrySRID - Updates the SRID of all features in a geometry column, and the table metadata.
- geometry_overlaps_nd - Returns TRUE if A's n-D bounding box intersects B's n-D bounding box.
- overlaps_nd_geometry_gidx - Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box intersects a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX).
- overlaps_nd_gidx_geometry - Returns TRUE if a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX) intersects a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box.
- overlaps_nd_gidx_gidx - Returns TRUE if two n-D float precision bounding boxes (GIDX) intersect each other.
- postgis_sfcgal_full_version - Returns the full version of SFCGAL in use including CGAL and Boost versions
- postgis_sfcgal_version - Returns the version of SFCGAL in use

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that can use CIRCULARSTRING, CURVEPOLYGON, and other curved geometry types

- AddGeometryColumn - Adds a geometry column to an existing table.
- Box2D - Returns a BOX2D representing the 2D extent of a geometry.
- Box3D - Returns a BOX3D representing the 3D extent of a geometry.
- DropGeometryColumn - Removes a geometry column from a spatial table.
- GeometryType - Returns the type of a geometry as text.
- PostGIS_AddBBox - Add bounding box to the geometry.
- PostGIS_DropBBox - Drop the bounding box cache from the geometry.
- PostGIS_HasBBox - Returns TRUE if the bbox of this geometry is cached, FALSE otherwise.
- ST_3DExtent - Aggregate function that returns the 3D bounding box of geometries.
- ST_Affine - Apply a 3D affine transformation to a geometry.
- ST_AsEWKB - Return the Extended Well-Known Binary (EWKB) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsEWKT - Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsHEXEWKB - Returns a Geometry in HEXEWKB format (as text) using either little-endian (NDR) or big-endian (XDR) encoding.
- ST_AsSVG - Returns SVG path data for a geometry.
- ST_AsText - Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata.
- ST_ClusterDBSCAN - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the DBSCAN algorithm.
- ST_ClusterWithin - Aggregate function that clusters geometries by separation distance.
- ST_ClusterWithinWin - Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry, clustering using separation distance.
- ST_Collect - Creates a GeometryCollection or Multi* geometry from a set of geometries.
- ST_CoordDim - Return the coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- ST_CurveToLine - Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
- ST_Distance - Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_Dump - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the components of a geometry.
- ST_DumpPoints - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the coordinates in a geometry.
- ST_EndPoint - Returns the last point of a LineString or CircularLineString.
- ST_EstimatedExtent - Returns the estimated extent of a spatial table.
- ST_FlipCoordinates - Returns a version of a geometry with X and Y axis flipped.
- ST_Force2D - Force the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode".
- ST_ForceCurve - Upcast a geometry into its curved type, if applicable.
- ST_ForceSFS - Force the geometries to use SFS 1.1 geometry types only.
- ST_Force3D - Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.
- ST_Force3DM - Force the geometries into XYM mode.
- ST_Force3DZ - Force the geometries into XYZ mode.
- ST_Force4D - Force the geometries into XYZM mode.
- ST_ForceCollection - Convert the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.
- ST_GeoHash - Return a GeoHash representation of the geometry.
- ST_GeogFromWKB - Creates a geography instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) or extended Well Known Binary (EWKB).
- ST_GeomFromEWKB - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Binary representation (EWKB).
- ST_GeomFromEWKT - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Text representation (EWKT).
- ST_GeomFromText - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT).
- ST_GeomFromWKB - Creates a geometry instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) and optional SRID.
- ST_GeometryN - Return an element of a geometry collection.
- = - Returns TRUE if the coordinates and coordinate order geometry/geography A are the same as the coordinates and coordinate order of geometry/geography B.
- &<| - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is below B's.
- ST_HasArc - Tests if a geometry contains a circular arc
- ST_Intersects - Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_IsClosed - Tests if a LineStrings's start and end points are coincident. For a PolyhedralSurface tests if it is closed (volumetric).
- ST_IsCollection - Tests if a geometry is a geometry collection type.
- ST_IsEmpty - Tests if a geometry is empty.
- ST_LineToCurve - Converts a linear geometry to a curved geometry.
- ST_MemSize - Returns the amount of memory space a geometry takes.
- ST_NPoints - Returns the number of points (vertices) in a geometry.
- ST_NRings - Returns the number of rings in a polygonal geometry.
- ST_PointFromWKB - Makes a geometry from WKB with the given SRID
- ST_PointN - Returns the Nth point in the first LineString or circular LineString in a geometry.
- ST_Points - Returns a MultiPoint containing the coordinates of a geometry.
- ST_Rotate - Rotates a geometry about an origin point.
- ST_RotateZ - Rotates a geometry about the Z axis.
- ST_SRID - Returns the spatial reference identifier for a geometry.
- ST_Scale - Scales a geometry by given factors.
- ST_SetSRID - Set the SRID on a geometry.
- ST_StartPoint - Returns the first point of a LineString.
- ST_Summary - Returns a text summary of the contents of a geometry.
- ST_SwapOrdinates - Returns a version of the given geometry with given ordinate values swapped.
- ST_TransScale - Translates and scales a geometry by given offsets and factors.
- ST_Transform - Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system.
- ST_Translate - Translates a geometry by given offsets.
- ST_XMax - Returns the X maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_XMin - Returns the X minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_YMax - Returns the Y maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_YMin - Returns the Y minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_ZMax - Returns the Z maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_ZMin - Returns the Z minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Zmflag - Returns a code indicating the ZM coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- UpdateGeometrySRID - Updates the SRID of all features in a geometry column, and the table metadata.
- ~(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains another 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- ~(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains a geometry's 2D bonding box.
- ~(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bonding box contains a 2D float precision bounding box (GIDX).
- && - Returns TRUE if A's 2D bounding box intersects B's 2D bounding box.
- &&& - Returns TRUE if A's n-D bounding box intersects B's n-D bounding box.
- @(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into another 2D float precision bounding box.
- @(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into a geometry's 2D bounding box.
- @(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bounding box is contained into a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- &&(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if two 2D float precision bounding boxes (BOX2DF) intersect each other.
- &&(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) intersects a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box.
- &&(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box intersects a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- &&&(geometry,gidx) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box intersects a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX).
- &&&(gidx,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX) intersects a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box.
- &&&(gidx,gidx) - Returns TRUE if two n-D float precision bounding boxes (GIDX) intersect each other.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that can use POLYHEDRALSURFACE, POLYHEDRALSURFACEM geometries

- AddGeometryColumn - Adds a geometry column to an existing table.
- Box2D - Returns a BOX2D representing the 2D extent of a geometry.
- Box3D - Returns a BOX3D representing the 3D extent of a geometry.
- DropGeometryColumn - Removes a geometry column from a spatial table.
- GeometryType - Returns the type of a geometry as text.
- PostGIS_AddBBox - Add bounding box to the geometry.
- PostGIS_DropBBox - Drop the bounding box cache from the geometry.
- PostGIS_HasBBox - Returns TRUE if the bbox of this geometry is cached, FALSE otherwise.
- ST_3DExtent - Aggregate function that returns the 3D bounding box of geometries.
- ST_Affine - Apply a 3D affine transformation to a geometry.
- ST_AsEWKB - Return the Extended Well-Known Binary (EWKB) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsEWKT - Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsHEXEWKB - Returns a Geometry in HEXEWKB format (as text) using either little-endian (NDR) or big-endian (XDR) encoding.
- ST_AsSVG - Returns SVG path data for a geometry.
- ST_ClusterWithin - Aggregate function that clusters geometries by separation distance.
- ST_Collect - Creates a GeometryCollection or Multi* geometry from a set of geometries.
- ST_CoordDim - Return the coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- ST_CurveToLine - Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
- ST_Distance - Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_Dump - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the components of a geometry.
- ST_DumpPoints - Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the coordinates in a geometry.
- ST_EndPoint - Returns the last point of a LineString or CircularLineString.
- ST_EstimatedExtent - Returns the estimated extent of a spatial table.
- ST_FlipCoordinates - Returns a version of a geometry with X and Y axis flipped.
- ST_Force2D - Force the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode".
- ST_ForceCurve - Upcast a geometry into its curved type, if applicable.
- ST_ForceSFS - Force the geometries to use SFS 1.1 geometry types only.
- ST_Force3D - Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.
- ST_Force3DM - Force the geometries into XYM mode.
- ST_Force3DZ - Force the geometries into XYZ mode.
- ST_Force4D - Force the geometries into XYZM mode.
- ST_ForceCollection - Convert the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.
- ST_GeoHash - Return a GeoHash representation of the geometry.
- ST_GeogFromWKB - Creates a geography instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) or extended Well Known Binary (EWKB).
- ST_GeomFromEWKB - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Binary representation (EWKB).
- ST_GeomFromEWKT - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Text representation (EWKT).
- ST_GeomFromText - Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT).
- ST_GeomFromWKB - Creates a geometry instance from a Well-Known Binary geometry representation (WKB) and optional SRID.
- ST_GeometryN - Return an element of a geometry collection.
- = - Returns TRUE if the coordinates and coordinate order geometry/geography A are the same as the coordinates and coordinate order of geometry/geography B.
- &<| - Returns TRUE if A's bounding box overlaps or is below B's.
- ST_HasArc - Tests if a geometry contains a circular arc
- ST_Intersects - Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_IsCollection - Tests if a geometry is a geometry collection type.
- ST_IsEmpty - Tests if a geometry is empty.
- ST_LineToCurve - Converts a linear geometry to a curved geometry.
- ST_MemSize - Returns the amount of memory space a geometry takes.
- ST_NPoints - Returns the number of points (vertices) in a geometry.
- ST_NRings - Returns the number of rings in a polygonal geometry.
- ST_PointFromWKB - Makes a geometry from WKB with the given SRID
- ST_PointN - Returns the Nth point in the first LineString or circular LineString in a geometry.
- ST_Points - Returns a MultiPoint containing the coordinates of a geometry.
- ST_Rotate - Rotates a geometry about an origin point.
- ST_RotateZ - Rotates a geometry about the Z axis.
- ST_SRID - Returns the spatial reference identifier for a geometry.
- ST_Scale - Scales a geometry by given factors.
- ST_SetSRID - Set the SRID on a geometry.
- ST_StartPoint - Returns the first point of a LineString.
- ST_Summary - Returns a text summary of the contents of a geometry.
- ST_SwapOrdinates - Returns a version of the given geometry with given ordinate values swapped.
- ST_TransScale - Translates and scales a geometry by given offsets and factors.
- ST_Transform - Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system.
- ST_Translate - Translates a geometry by given offsets.
- ST_XMax - Returns the X maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_XMin - Returns the X minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_YMax - Returns the Y maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_YMin - Returns the Y minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_ZMax - Returns the Z maxima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_ZMin - Returns the Z minima of a 2D or 3D bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Zmflag - Returns a code indicating the ZM coordinate dimension of a geometry.
- UpdateGeometrySRID - Updates the SRID of all features in a geometry column, and the table metadata.
- ~(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains another 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- ~(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains a geometry's 2D bonding box.
- ~(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bonding box contains a 2D float precision bounding box (GIDX).
- && - Returns TRUE if A's 2D bounding box intersects B's 2D bounding box.
- &&& - Returns TRUE if A's n-D bounding box intersects B's n-D bounding box.
- @(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into another 2D float precision bounding box.
- @(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into a geometry's 2D bounding box.
- @(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bounding box is contained into a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- &&(box2df,box2df) - Returns TRUE if two 2D float precision bounding boxes (BOX2DF) intersect each other.
- &&(box2df,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) intersects a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box.
- &&(geometry,box2df) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box intersects a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- &&&(geometry,gidx) - Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box intersects a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX).
- &&&(gidx,geometry) - Returns TRUE if a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX) intersects a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box.
- &&&(gidx,gidx) - Returns TRUE if two n-D float precision bounding boxes (GIDX) intersect each other.

Below is an alphabetical listing of spatial specific functions in PostGIS and the kinds of spatial types they work with or OGC/SQL compliance they try to conform to.

- A means the function works with the type or subtype natively.
- A means it works but with a transform cast built-in using cast to geometry, transform to a "best srid" spatial ref and then cast back. Results may not be as expected for large areas or areas at poles and may accumulate floating point junk.
- A means the function works with the type because of a auto-cast to another such as to box3d rather than direct type support.
- A means the function only available if PostGIS compiled with SFCGAL support.
- geom - Basic 2D geometry support (x,y).
- geog - Basic 2D geography support (x,y).
- 2.5D - basic 2D geometries in 3 D/4D space (has Z or M coord).
- PS - Polyhedral surfaces
- T - Triangles and Triangulated Irregular Network surfaces (TIN)

- 12.12.1. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.5
- 12.12.2. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.4
- 12.12.3. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.3
- 12.12.4. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.2
- 12.12.5. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.1
- 12.12.6. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.0
- 12.12.7. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.5
- 12.12.8. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.4
- 12.12.9. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.3
- 12.12.10. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.2
- 12.12.11. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.1
- 12.12.12. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.0
- 12.12.13. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 1.5
- 12.12.14. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 1.4
- 12.12.15. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 1.3

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 3.5

- CG_ApproxConvexPartition - Availability: 3.5.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.5.0. Computes approximal convex partition of the polygon geometry
- CG_ExtrudeStraightSkeleton - Availability: 3.5.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.5.0. Straight Skeleton Extrusion
- CG_GreeneApproxConvexPartition - Availability: 3.5.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.5.0. Computes approximal convex partition of the polygon geometry
- CG_OptimalConvexPartition - Availability: 3.5.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.5.0. Computes an optimal convex partition of the polygon geometry
- CG_Visibility - Availability: 3.5.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.5.0. Compute a visibility polygon from a point or a segment in a polygon geometry
- CG_YMonotonePartition - Availability: 3.5.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.5.0. Computes y-monotone partition of the polygon geometry
- ST_HasM - Availability: 3.5.0 Checks if a geometry has an M (measure) dimension.
- ST_HasZ - Availability: 3.5.0 Checks if a geometry has a Z dimension.

Functions changed in PostGIS 3.5

- ST_AsGeoJSON - Changed: 3.5.0 allow specifying the column containing the feature id Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 3.4

- PostGIS_GEOS_Compiled_Version - Availability: 3.4.0 Returns the version number of the GEOS library against which PostGIS was built.
- ST_ClusterIntersectingWin - Availability: 3.4.0 Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry, clustering input geometries into connected sets.
- ST_ClusterWithinWin - Availability: 3.4.0 Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry, clustering using separation distance.
- ST_CoverageInvalidEdges - Availability: 3.4.0 Window function that finds locations where polygons fail to form a valid coverage.
- ST_CoverageSimplify - Availability: 3.4.0 Window function that simplifies the edges of a polygonal coverage.
- ST_CoverageUnion - Availability: 3.4.0 - requires GEOS >= 3.8.0 Computes the union of a set of polygons forming a coverage by removing shared edges.
- ST_InverseTransformPipeline - Availability: 3.4.0 Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system using the inverse of a defined coordinate transformation pipeline.
- ST_LargestEmptyCircle - Availability: 3.4.0. Computes the largest circle not overlapping a geometry.
- ST_LineExtend - Availability: 3.4.0 Returns a line extended forwards and backwards by specified distances.
- ST_TransformPipeline - Availability: 3.4.0 Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system using a defined coordinate transformation pipeline.
- postgis_srs - Availability: 3.4.0 Return a metadata record for the requested authority and srid.
- postgis_srs_all - Availability: 3.4.0 Return metadata records for every spatial reference system in the underlying Proj database.
- postgis_srs_codes - Availability: 3.4.0 Return the list of SRS codes associated with the given authority.
- postgis_srs_search - Availability: 3.4.0 Return metadata records for projected coordinate systems that have areas of useage that fully contain the bounds parameter.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 3.4

- PostGIS_Full_Version - Enhanced: 3.4.0 now includes extra PROJ configurations NETWORK_ENABLED, URL_ENDPOINT and DATABASE_PATH of proj.db location Reports full PostGIS version and build configuration infos.
- PostGIS_PROJ_Version - Enhanced: 3.4.0 now includes NETWORK_ENABLED, URL_ENDPOINT and DATABASE_PATH of proj.db location Returns the version number of the PROJ4 library.
- ST_AsSVG - Enhanced: 3.4.0 to support all curve types Returns SVG path data for a geometry.
- ST_ClosestPoint - Enhanced: 3.4.0 - Support for geography. Returns the 2D point on g1 that is closest to g2. This is the first point of the shortest line from one geometry to the other.
- ST_LineSubstring - Enhanced: 3.4.0 - Support for geography was introduced. Returns the part of a line between two fractional locations.
- ST_Project - Enhanced: 3.4.0 Allow geometry arguments and two-point form omitting azimuth. Returns a point projected from a start point by a distance and bearing (azimuth).
- ST_ShortestLine - Enhanced: 3.4.0 - support for geography. Returns the 2D shortest line between two geometries

Functions changed in PostGIS 3.4

- PostGIS_Extensions_Upgrade - Changed: 3.4.0 to add target_version argument. Packages and upgrades PostGIS extensions (e.g. postgis_raster,postgis_topology, postgis_sfcgal) to given or latest version.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 3.3

- ST_3DConvexHull - Availability: 3.3.0 Computes the 3D convex hull of a geometry.
- ST_3DUnion - Availability: 3.3.0 aggregate variant was added Perform 3D union.
- ST_AlphaShape - Availability: 3.3.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.4.1. Computes an Alpha-shape enclosing a geometry
- ST_AsMARC21 - Availability: 3.3.0 Returns geometry as a MARC21/XML record with a geographic datafield (034).
- ST_GeomFromMARC21 - Availability: 3.3.0, requires libxml2 2.6+ Takes MARC21/XML geographic data as input and returns a PostGIS geometry object.
- ST_Letters - Availability: 3.3.0 Returns the input letters rendered as geometry with a default start position at the origin and default text height of 100.
- ST_OptimalAlphaShape - Availability: 3.3.0 - requires SFCGAL >= 1.4.1. Computes an Alpha-shape enclosing a geometry using an "optimal" alpha value.
- ST_SimplifyPolygonHull - Availability: 3.3.0. Computes a simplifed topology-preserving outer or inner hull of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_TriangulatePolygon - Availability: 3.3.0. Computes the constrained Delaunay triangulation of polygons
- postgis_sfcgal_full_version - Availability: 3.3.0 Returns the full version of SFCGAL in use including CGAL and Boost versions

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 3.3

- ST_ConcaveHull - Enhanced: 3.3.0, GEOS native implementation enabled for GEOS 3.11+ Computes a possibly concave geometry that contains all input geometry vertices
- ST_LineMerge - Enhanced: 3.3.0 accept a directed parameter. Return the lines formed by sewing together a MultiLineString.

Functions changed in PostGIS 3.3

- PostGIS_Extensions_Upgrade - Changed: 3.3.0 support for upgrades from any PostGIS version. Does not work on all systems. Packages and upgrades PostGIS extensions (e.g. postgis_raster,postgis_topology, postgis_sfcgal) to given or latest version.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 3.2

- ST_AsFlatGeobuf - Availability: 3.2.0 Return a FlatGeobuf representation of a set of rows.
- ST_DumpSegments - Availability: 3.2.0 Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the segments in a geometry.
- ST_FromFlatGeobuf - Availability: 3.2.0 Reads FlatGeobuf data.
- ST_FromFlatGeobufToTable - Availability: 3.2.0 Creates a table based on the structure of FlatGeobuf data.
- ST_Scroll - Availability: 3.2.0 Change start point of a closed LineString.
- postgis.gdal_config_options - Availability: 3.2.0 A string configuration to set options used when working with an out-db raster.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 3.2

- ST_ClusterKMeans - Enhanced: 3.2.0 Support for max_radius Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the K-means algorithm.
- ST_MakeValid - Enhanced: 3.2.0, added algorithm options, 'linework' and 'structure' which requires GEOS >= 3.10.0. Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.
- ST_Point - Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry. Creates a Point with X, Y and SRID values.
- ST_PointM - Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry. Creates a Point with X, Y, M and SRID values.
- ST_PointZ - Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry. Creates a Point with X, Y, Z and SRID values.
- ST_PointZM - Enhanced: 3.2.0 srid as an extra optional argument was added. Older installs require combining with ST_SetSRID to mark the srid on the geometry. Creates a Point with X, Y, Z, M and SRID values.
- ST_RemovePoint - Enhanced: 3.2.0 Remove a point from a linestring.
- ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints - Enhanced: 3.2.0 Returns a version of a geometry with duplicate points removed.
- ST_StartPoint - Enhanced: 3.2.0 returns a point for all geometries. Prior behavior returns NULLs if input was not a LineString. Returns the first point of a LineString.

Functions changed in PostGIS 3.2

- ST_Boundary - Changed: 3.2.0 support for TIN, does not use geos, does not linearize curves Returns the boundary of a geometry.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 3.1

- ST_Hexagon - Availability: 3.1.0 Returns a single hexagon, using the provided edge size and cell coordinate within the hexagon grid space.
- ST_HexagonGrid - Availability: 3.1.0 Returns a set of hexagons and cell indices that completely cover the bounds of the geometry argument.
- ST_MaximumInscribedCircle - Availability: 3.1.0. Computes the largest circle contained within a geometry.
- ST_ReducePrecision - Availability: 3.1.0. Returns a valid geometry with points rounded to a grid tolerance.
- ST_Square - Availability: 3.1.0 Returns a single square, using the provided edge size and cell coordinate within the square grid space.
- ST_SquareGrid - Availability: 3.1.0 Returns a set of grid squares and cell indices that completely cover the bounds of the geometry argument.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 3.1

- ST_AsEWKT - Enhanced: 3.1.0 support for optional precision parameter. Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_ClusterKMeans - Enhanced: 3.1.0 Support for 3D geometries and weights Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the K-means algorithm.
- ST_Difference - Enhanced: 3.1.0 accept a gridSize parameter. Computes a geometry representing the part of geometry A that does not intersect geometry B.
- ST_Intersection - Enhanced: 3.1.0 accept a gridSize parameter Computes a geometry representing the shared portion of geometries A and B.
- ST_MakeValid - Enhanced: 3.1.0, added removal of Coordinates with NaN values. Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.
- ST_Subdivide - Enhanced: 3.1.0 accept a gridSize parameter. Computes a rectilinear subdivision of a geometry.
- ST_SymDifference - Enhanced: 3.1.0 accept a gridSize parameter. Computes a geometry representing the portions of geometries A and B that do not intersect.
- ST_TileEnvelope - Enhanced: 3.1.0 Added margin parameter. Creates a rectangular Polygon in Web Mercator (SRID:3857) using the XYZ tile system.
- ST_UnaryUnion - Enhanced: 3.1.0 accept a gridSize parameter. Computes the union of the components of a single geometry.
- ST_Union - Enhanced: 3.1.0 accept a gridSize parameter. Computes a geometry representing the point-set union of the input geometries.

Functions changed in PostGIS 3.1

- ST_Force3D - Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying a non-zero Z value. Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.
- ST_Force3DM - Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying a non-zero M value. Force the geometries into XYM mode.
- ST_Force3DZ - Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying a non-zero Z value. Force the geometries into XYZ mode.
- ST_Force4D - Changed: 3.1.0. Added support for supplying non-zero Z and M values. Force the geometries into XYZM mode.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 3.0

- ST_3DLineInterpolatePoint - Availability: 3.0.0 Returns a point interpolated along a 3D line at a fractional location.
- ST_ConstrainedDelaunayTriangles - Availability: 3.0.0 Return a constrained Delaunay triangulation around the given input geometry.
- ST_TileEnvelope - Availability: 3.0.0 Creates a rectangular Polygon in Web Mercator (SRID:3857) using the XYZ tile system.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 3.0

- ST_AsMVT - Enhanced: 3.0 - added support for Feature ID. Aggregate function returning a MVT representation of a set of rows.
- ST_Contains - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if every point of B lies in A, and their interiors have a point in common
- ST_ContainsProperly - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if every point of B lies in the interior of A
- ST_CoveredBy - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if every point of A lies in B
- ST_Covers - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if every point of B lies in A
- ST_Crosses - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if two geometries have some, but not all, interior points in common
- ST_CurveToLine - Enhanced: 3.0.0 implemented a minimum number of segments per linearized arc to prevent topological collapse. Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
- ST_Disjoint - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if two geometries have no points in common
- ST_Equals - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if two geometries include the same set of points
- ST_GeneratePoints - Enhanced: 3.0.0, added seed parameter Generates a multipoint of random points contained in a Polygon or MultiPolygon.
- ST_GeomFromGeoJSON - Enhanced: 3.0.0 parsed geometry defaults to SRID=4326 if not specified otherwise. Takes as input a geojson representation of a geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_LocateBetween - Enhanced: 3.0.0 - added support for POLYGON, TIN, TRIANGLE. Returns the portions of a geometry that match a measure range.
- ST_LocateBetweenElevations - Enhanced: 3.0.0 - added support for POLYGON, TIN, TRIANGLE. Returns the portions of a geometry that lie in an elevation (Z) range.
- ST_Overlaps - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if two geometries have the same dimension and intersect, but each has at least one point not in the other
- ST_Relate - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if two geometries have a topological relationship matching an Intersection Matrix pattern, or computes their Intersection Matrix
- ST_Segmentize - Enhanced: 3.0.0 Segmentize geometry now produces equal-length subsegments Returns a modified geometry/geography having no segment longer than a given distance.
- ST_Touches - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if two geometries have at least one point in common, but their interiors do not intersect
- ST_Within - Enhanced: 3.0.0 enabled support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION Tests if every point of A lies in B, and their interiors have a point in common

Functions changed in PostGIS 3.0

- PostGIS_Extensions_Upgrade - Changed: 3.0.0 to repackage loose extensions and support postgis_raster. Packages and upgrades PostGIS extensions (e.g. postgis_raster,postgis_topology, postgis_sfcgal) to given or latest version.
- ST_3DDistance - Changed: 3.0.0 - SFCGAL version removed Returns the 3D cartesian minimum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DIntersects - Changed: 3.0.0 SFCGAL backend removed, GEOS backend supports TINs. Tests if two geometries spatially intersect in 3D - only for points, linestrings, polygons, polyhedral surface (area)
- ST_Area - Changed: 3.0.0 - does not depend on SFCGAL anymore. Returns the area of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_AsGeoJSON - Changed: 3.0.0 support records as input Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.
- ST_AsGeoJSON - Changed: 3.0.0 output SRID if not EPSG:4326. Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.
- ST_AsKML - Changed: 3.0.0 - Removed the "versioned" variant signature Return the geometry as a KML element.
- ST_Distance - Changed: 3.0.0 - does not depend on SFCGAL anymore. Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_Intersection - Changed: 3.0.0 does not depend on SFCGAL. Computes a geometry representing the shared portion of geometries A and B.
- ST_Intersects - Changed: 3.0.0 SFCGAL version removed and native support for 2D TINS added. Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_Union - Changed: 3.0.0 does not depend on SFCGAL. Computes a geometry representing the point-set union of the input geometries.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 2.5

- ST_QuantizeCoordinates - Availability: 2.5.0 Sets least significant bits of coordinates to zero
- PostGIS_Extensions_Upgrade - Availability: 2.5.0 Packages and upgrades PostGIS extensions (e.g. postgis_raster,postgis_topology, postgis_sfcgal) to given or latest version.
- ST_Angle - Availability: 2.5.0 Returns the angle between two vectors defined by 3 or 4 points, or 2 lines.
- ST_ChaikinSmoothing - Availability: 2.5.0 Returns a smoothed version of a geometry, using the Chaikin algorithm
- ST_FilterByM - Availability: 2.5.0 Removes vertices based on their M value
- ST_LineInterpolatePoints - Availability: 2.5.0 Returns points interpolated along a line at a fractional interval.
- ST_OrientedEnvelope - Availability: 2.5.0. Returns a minimum-area rectangle containing a geometry.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 2.5

- ST_GeometricMedian - Enhanced: 2.5.0 Added support for M as weight of points. Returns the geometric median of a MultiPoint.
- ST_AsMVT - Enhanced: 2.5.0 - added support parallel query. Aggregate function returning a MVT representation of a set of rows.
- ST_AsText - Enhanced: 2.5 - optional parameter precision introduced. Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata.
- ST_Buffer - Enhanced: 2.5.0 - ST_Buffer geometry support was enhanced to allow for side buffering specification side=both|left|right. Computes a geometry covering all points within a given distance from a geometry.
- ST_GeomFromGeoJSON - Enhanced: 2.5.0 can now accept json and jsonb as inputs. Takes as input a geojson representation of a geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_Intersects - Enhanced: 2.5.0 Supports GEOMETRYCOLLECTION. Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_OffsetCurve - Enhanced: 2.5 - added support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION and MULTILINESTRING Returns an offset line at a given distance and side from an input line.
- ST_Scale - Enhanced: 2.5.0 support for scaling relative to a local origin (origin parameter) was introduced. Scales a geometry by given factors.
- ST_Split - Enhanced: 2.5.0 support for splitting a polygon by a multiline was introduced. Returns a collection of geometries created by splitting a geometry by another geometry.
- ST_Subdivide - Enhanced: 2.5.0 reuses existing points on polygon split, vertex count is lowered from 8 to 5. Computes a rectilinear subdivision of a geometry.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 2.4

- ST_ForcePolygonCCW - Availability: 2.4.0 Orients all exterior rings counter-clockwise and all interior rings clockwise.
- ST_ForcePolygonCW - Availability: 2.4.0 Orients all exterior rings clockwise and all interior rings counter-clockwise.
- ST_IsPolygonCCW - Availability: 2.4.0 Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented counter-clockwise and interior rings oriented clockwise.
- ST_IsPolygonCW - Availability: 2.4.0 Tests if Polygons have exterior rings oriented clockwise and interior rings oriented counter-clockwise.
- ST_AsGeobuf - Availability: 2.4.0 Return a Geobuf representation of a set of rows.
- ST_AsMVT - Availability: 2.4.0 Aggregate function returning a MVT representation of a set of rows.
- ST_AsMVTGeom - Availability: 2.4.0 Transforms a geometry into the coordinate space of a MVT tile.
- ST_Centroid - Availability: 2.4.0 support for geography was introduced. Returns the geometric center of a geometry.
- ST_FrechetDistance - Availability: 2.4.0 - requires GEOS >= 3.7.0 Returns the Fréchet distance between two geometries.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 2.4

- ST_AsTWKB - Enhanced: 2.4.0 memory and speed improvements. Returns the geometry as TWKB, aka "Tiny Well-Known Binary"
- ST_Covers - Enhanced: 2.4.0 Support for polygon in polygon and line in polygon added for geography type Tests if every point of B lies in A
- ST_CurveToLine - Enhanced: 2.4.0 added support for max-deviation and max-angle tolerance, and for symmetric output. Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
- ST_Project - Enhanced: 2.4.0 Allow negative distance and non-normalized azimuth. Returns a point projected from a start point by a distance and bearing (azimuth).
- ST_Reverse - Enhanced: 2.4.0 support for curves was introduced. Return the geometry with vertex order reversed.

Functions changed in PostGIS 2.4

- = - Changed: 2.4.0, in prior versions this was bounding box equality not a geometric equality. If you need bounding box equality, use instead. Returns TRUE if the coordinates and coordinate order geometry/geography A are the same as the coordinates and coordinate order of geometry/geography B.
- ST_Node - Changed: 2.4.0 this function uses GEOSNode internally instead of GEOSUnaryUnion. This may cause the resulting linestrings to have a different order and direction compared to PostGIS < 2.4. Nodes a collection of lines.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 2.3

- ST_GeometricMedian - Availability: 2.3.0 Returns the geometric median of a MultiPoint.
- &&&(geometry,gidx) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box intersects a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX).
- &&&(gidx,geometry) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a n-D float precision bounding box (GIDX) intersects a geometry's (cached) n-D bounding box.
- &&&(gidx,gidx) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if two n-D float precision bounding boxes (GIDX) intersect each other.
- &&(box2df,box2df) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if two 2D float precision bounding boxes (BOX2DF) intersect each other.
- &&(box2df,geometry) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) intersects a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box.
- &&(geometry,box2df) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a geometry's (cached) 2D bounding box intersects a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- @(box2df,box2df) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into another 2D float precision bounding box.
- @(box2df,geometry) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) is contained into a geometry's 2D bounding box.
- @(geometry,box2df) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bounding box is contained into a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- ST_ClusterDBSCAN - Availability: 2.3.0 Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the DBSCAN algorithm.
- ST_ClusterKMeans - Availability: 2.3.0 Window function that returns a cluster id for each input geometry using the K-means algorithm.
- ST_GeneratePoints - Availability: 2.3.0 Generates a multipoint of random points contained in a Polygon or MultiPolygon.
- ST_MakeLine - Availability: 2.3.0 - Support for MultiPoint input elements was introduced Creates a LineString from Point, MultiPoint, or LineString geometries.
- ST_MinimumBoundingRadius - Availability - 2.3.0 Returns the center point and radius of the smallest circle that contains a geometry.
- ST_MinimumClearance - Availability: 2.3.0 Returns the minimum clearance of a geometry, a measure of a geometry's robustness.
- ST_MinimumClearanceLine - Availability: 2.3.0 - requires GEOS >= 3.6.0 Returns the two-point LineString spanning a geometry's minimum clearance.
- ST_Normalize - Availability: 2.3.0 Return the geometry in its canonical form.
- ST_Points - Availability: 2.3.0 Returns a MultiPoint containing the coordinates of a geometry.
- ST_VoronoiLines - Availability: 2.3.0 Returns the boundaries of the Voronoi diagram of the vertices of a geometry.
- ST_VoronoiPolygons - Availability: 2.3.0 Returns the cells of the Voronoi diagram of the vertices of a geometry.
- ST_WrapX - Availability: 2.3.0 requires GEOS Wrap a geometry around an X value.
- ~(box2df,box2df) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains another 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF).
- ~(box2df,geometry) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a 2D float precision bounding box (BOX2DF) contains a geometry's 2D bonding box.
- ~(geometry,box2df) - Availability: 2.3.0 support for Block Range INdexes (BRIN) was introduced. Requires PostgreSQL 9.5+. Returns TRUE if a geometry's 2D bonding box contains a 2D float precision bounding box (GIDX).

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 2.3

- ST_Contains - Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon. Tests if every point of B lies in A, and their interiors have a point in common
- ST_Covers - Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit for geometry extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon. Tests if every point of B lies in A
- ST_Expand - Enhanced: 2.3.0 support was added to expand a box by different amounts in different dimensions. Returns a bounding box expanded from another bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Intersects - Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon. Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_Segmentize - Enhanced: 2.3.0 Segmentize geography now produces equal-length subsegments Returns a modified geometry/geography having no segment longer than a given distance.
- ST_Transform - Enhanced: 2.3.0 support for direct PROJ.4 text was introduced. Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system.
- ST_Within - Enhanced: 2.3.0 Enhancement to PIP short-circuit for geometry extended to support MultiPoints with few points. Prior versions only supported point in polygon. Tests if every point of A lies in B, and their interiors have a point in common

Functions changed in PostGIS 2.3

- ST_PointN - Changed: 2.3.0 : negative indexing available (-1 is last point) Returns the Nth point in the first LineString or circular LineString in a geometry.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 2.2

- <<#>> - Availability: 2.2.0 -- KNN only available for PostgreSQL 9.1+ Returns the n-D distance between A and B bounding boxes.
- <<->> - Availability: 2.2.0 -- KNN only available for PostgreSQL 9.1+ Returns the n-D distance between the centroids of A and B boundingboxes.
- ST_3DDifference - Availability: 2.2.0 Perform 3D difference
- ST_3DUnion - Availability: 2.2.0 Perform 3D union.
- ST_ApproximateMedialAxis - Availability: 2.2.0 Compute the approximate medial axis of an areal geometry.
- ST_AsEncodedPolyline - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns an Encoded Polyline from a LineString geometry.
- ST_AsTWKB - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns the geometry as TWKB, aka "Tiny Well-Known Binary"
- ST_BoundingDiagonal - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns the diagonal of a geometry's bounding box.
- ST_CPAWithin - Availability: 2.2.0 Tests if the closest point of approach of two trajectoriesis within the specified distance.
- ST_ClipByBox2D - Availability: 2.2.0 Computes the portion of a geometry falling within a rectangle.
- ST_ClosestPointOfApproach - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns a measure at the closest point of approach of two trajectories.
- ST_ClusterIntersecting - Availability: 2.2.0 Aggregate function that clusters input geometries into connected sets.
- ST_ClusterWithin - Availability: 2.2.0 Aggregate function that clusters geometries by separation distance.
- ST_DistanceCPA - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns the distance between the closest point of approach of two trajectories.
- ST_ForceCurve - Availability: 2.2.0 Upcast a geometry into its curved type, if applicable.
- ST_IsPlanar - Availability: 2.2.0: This was documented in 2.1.0 but got accidentally left out in 2.1 release. Check if a surface is or not planar
- ST_IsSolid - Availability: 2.2.0 Test if the geometry is a solid. No validity check is performed.
- ST_IsValidTrajectory - Availability: 2.2.0 Tests if the geometry is a valid trajectory.
- ST_LineFromEncodedPolyline - Availability: 2.2.0 Creates a LineString from an Encoded Polyline.
- ST_MakeSolid - Availability: 2.2.0 Cast the geometry into a solid. No check is performed. To obtain a valid solid, the input geometry must be a closed Polyhedral Surface or a closed TIN.
- ST_RemoveRepeatedPoints - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns a version of a geometry with duplicate points removed.
- ST_SetEffectiveArea - Availability: 2.2.0 Sets the effective area for each vertex, using the Visvalingam-Whyatt algorithm.
- ST_SimplifyVW - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns a simplified version of a geometry, using the Visvalingam-Whyatt algorithm
- ST_Subdivide - Availability: 2.2.0 Computes a rectilinear subdivision of a geometry.
- ST_SwapOrdinates - Availability: 2.2.0 Returns a version of the given geometry with given ordinate values swapped.
- ST_Volume - Availability: 2.2.0 Computes the volume of a 3D solid. If applied to surface (even closed) geometries will return 0.
- postgis.enable_outdb_rasters - Availability: 2.2.0 A boolean configuration option to enable access to out-db raster bands.
- postgis.gdal_datapath - Availability: 2.2.0 A configuration option to assign the value of GDAL's GDAL_DATA option. If not set, the environmentally set GDAL_DATA variable is used.
- postgis.gdal_enabled_drivers - Availability: 2.2.0 A configuration option to set the enabled GDAL drivers in the PostGIS environment. Affects the GDAL configuration variable GDAL_SKIP.
- |=| - Availability: 2.2.0. Index-supported only available for PostgreSQL 9.5+ Returns the distance between A and B trajectories at their closest point of approach.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 2.2

- <-> - Enhanced: 2.2.0 -- True KNN ("K nearest neighbor") behavior for geometry and geography for PostgreSQL 9.5+. Note for geography KNN is based on sphere rather than spheroid. For PostgreSQL 9.4 and below, geography support is new but only supports centroid box. Returns the 2D distance between A and B.
- ST_Area - Enhanced: 2.2.0 - measurement on spheroid performed with GeographicLib for improved accuracy and robustness. Requires PROJ >= 4.9.0 to take advantage of the new feature. Returns the area of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_AsX3D - Enhanced: 2.2.0: Support for GeoCoordinates and axis (x/y, long/lat) flipping. Look at options for details. Returns a Geometry in X3D xml node element format: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML
- ST_Azimuth - Enhanced: 2.2.0 measurement on spheroid performed with GeographicLib for improved accuracy and robustness. Requires PROJ >= 4.9.0 to take advantage of the new feature. Returns the north-based azimuth of a line between two points.
- ST_Distance - Enhanced: 2.2.0 - measurement on spheroid performed with GeographicLib for improved accuracy and robustness. Requires PROJ >= 4.9.0 to take advantage of the new feature. Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_Scale - Enhanced: 2.2.0 support for scaling all dimension (factor parameter) was introduced. Scales a geometry by given factors.
- ST_Split - Enhanced: 2.2.0 support for splitting a line by a multiline, a multipoint or (multi)polygon boundary was introduced. Returns a collection of geometries created by splitting a geometry by another geometry.
- ST_Summary - Enhanced: 2.2.0 Added support for TIN and Curves Returns a text summary of the contents of a geometry.

Functions changed in PostGIS 2.2

- <-> - Changed: 2.2.0 -- For PostgreSQL 9.5 users, old Hybrid syntax may be slower, so you'll want to get rid of that hack if you are running your code only on PostGIS 2.2+ 9.5+. See examples below. Returns the 2D distance between A and B.
- ST_3DClosestPoint - Changed: 2.2.0 - if 2 2D geometries are input, a 2D point is returned (instead of old behavior assuming 0 for missing Z). In case of 2D and 3D, Z is no longer assumed to be 0 for missing Z. Returns the 3D point on g1 that is closest to g2. This is the first point of the 3D shortest line.
- ST_3DDistance - Changed: 2.2.0 - In case of 2D and 3D, Z is no longer assumed to be 0 for missing Z. Returns the 3D cartesian minimum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DLongestLine - Changed: 2.2.0 - if 2 2D geometries are input, a 2D point is returned (instead of old behavior assuming 0 for missing Z). In case of 2D and 3D, Z is no longer assumed to be 0 for missing Z. Returns the 3D longest line between two geometries
- ST_3DMaxDistance - Changed: 2.2.0 - In case of 2D and 3D, Z is no longer assumed to be 0 for missing Z. Returns the 3D cartesian maximum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DShortestLine - Changed: 2.2.0 - if 2 2D geometries are input, a 2D point is returned (instead of old behavior assuming 0 for missing Z). In case of 2D and 3D, Z is no longer assumed to be 0 for missing Z. Returns the 3D shortest line between two geometries
- ST_DistanceSphere - Changed: 2.2.0 In prior versions this used to be called ST_Distance_Sphere Returns minimum distance in meters between two lon/lat geometries using a spherical earth model.
- ST_DistanceSpheroid - Changed: 2.2.0 In prior versions this was called ST_Distance_Spheroid Returns the minimum distance between two lon/lat geometries using a spheroidal earth model.
- ST_Equals - Changed: 2.2.0 Returns true even for invalid geometries if they are binary equal Tests if two geometries include the same set of points
- ST_LengthSpheroid - Changed: 2.2.0 In prior versions this was called ST_Length_Spheroid and had the alias ST_3DLength_Spheroid Returns the 2D or 3D length/perimeter of a lon/lat geometry on a spheroid.
- ST_MemSize - Changed: 2.2.0 name changed to ST_MemSize to follow naming convention. Returns the amount of memory space a geometry takes.
- ST_PointInsideCircle - Changed: 2.2.0 In prior versions this was called ST_Point_Inside_Circle Tests if a point geometry is inside a circle defined by a center and radius

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 2.1

- ST_3DArea - Availability: 2.1.0 Computes area of 3D surface geometries. Will return 0 for solids.
- ST_3DIntersection - Availability: 2.1.0 Perform 3D intersection
- ST_Box2dFromGeoHash - Availability: 2.1.0 Return a BOX2D from a GeoHash string.
- ST_DelaunayTriangles - Availability: 2.1.0 Returns the Delaunay triangulation of the vertices of a geometry.
- ST_Extrude - Availability: 2.1.0 Extrude a surface to a related volume
- ST_ForceLHR - Availability: 2.1.0 Force LHR orientation
- ST_GeomFromGeoHash - Availability: 2.1.0 Return a geometry from a GeoHash string.
- ST_MinkowskiSum - Availability: 2.1.0 Performs Minkowski sum
- ST_Orientation - Availability: 2.1.0 Determine surface orientation
- ST_PointFromGeoHash - Availability: 2.1.0 Return a point from a GeoHash string.
- ST_StraightSkeleton - Availability: 2.1.0 Compute a straight skeleton from a geometry
- ST_Tesselate - Availability: 2.1.0 Perform surface Tesselation of a polygon or polyhedralsurface and returns as a TIN or collection of TINS
- postgis.backend - Availability: 2.1.0 The backend to service a function where GEOS and SFCGAL overlap. Options: geos or sfcgal. Defaults to geos.
- postgis_sfcgal_version - Availability: 2.1.0 Returns the version of SFCGAL in use

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 2.1

- ST_AsGML - Enhanced: 2.1.0 id support was introduced, for GML 3. Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_Boundary - Enhanced: 2.1.0 support for Triangle was introduced Returns the boundary of a geometry.
- ST_DWithin - Enhanced: 2.1.0 improved speed for geography. See Making Geography faster for details. Tests if two geometries are within a given distance
- ST_DWithin - Enhanced: 2.1.0 support for curved geometries was introduced. Tests if two geometries are within a given distance
- ST_Distance - Enhanced: 2.1.0 improved speed for geography. See Making Geography faster for details. Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_Distance - Enhanced: 2.1.0 - support for curved geometries was introduced. Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_DumpPoints - Enhanced: 2.1.0 Faster speed. Reimplemented as native-C. Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the coordinates in a geometry.
- ST_MakeValid - Enhanced: 2.1.0, added support for GEOMETRYCOLLECTION and MULTIPOINT. Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.
- ST_Segmentize - Enhanced: 2.1.0 support for geography was introduced. Returns a modified geometry/geography having no segment longer than a given distance.
- ST_Summary - Enhanced: 2.1.0 S flag to denote if has a known spatial reference system Returns a text summary of the contents of a geometry.

Functions changed in PostGIS 2.1

- ST_EstimatedExtent - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Estimated_Extent. Returns the estimated extent of a spatial table.
- ST_Force2D - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_2D. Force the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode".
- ST_Force3D - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_3D. Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.
- ST_Force3DM - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_3DM. Force the geometries into XYM mode.
- ST_Force3DZ - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_3DZ. Force the geometries into XYZ mode.
- ST_Force4D - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_4D. Force the geometries into XYZM mode.
- ST_ForceCollection - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Force_Collection. Convert the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.
- ST_LineInterpolatePoint - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Line_Interpolate_Point. Returns a point interpolated along a line at a fractional location.
- ST_LineLocatePoint - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Line_Locate_Point. Returns the fractional location of the closest point on a line to a point.
- ST_LineSubstring - Changed: 2.1.0. Up to 2.0.x this was called ST_Line_Substring. Returns the part of a line between two fractional locations.
- ST_Segmentize - Changed: 2.1.0 As a result of the introduction of geography support, the usage ST_Segmentize('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)', 0.5) causes an ambiguous function error. The input needs to be properly typed as a geometry or geography. Use ST_GeomFromText, ST_GeogFromText or a cast to the required type (e.g. ST_Segmentize('LINESTRING(1 2, 3 4)'::geometry, 0.5) ) Returns a modified geometry/geography having no segment longer than a given distance.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 2.0

- &&& - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns TRUE if A's n-D bounding box intersects B's n-D bounding box.
- <#> - Availability: 2.0.0 -- KNN only available for PostgreSQL 9.1+ Returns the 2D distance between A and B bounding boxes.
- <-> - Availability: 2.0.0 -- Weak KNN provides nearest neighbors based on geometry centroid distances instead of true distances. Exact results for points, inexact for all other types. Available for PostgreSQL 9.1+ Returns the 2D distance between A and B.
- ST_3DClosestPoint - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the 3D point on g1 that is closest to g2. This is the first point of the 3D shortest line.
- ST_3DDFullyWithin - Availability: 2.0.0 Tests if two 3D geometries are entirely within a given 3D distance
- ST_3DDWithin - Availability: 2.0.0 Tests if two 3D geometries are within a given 3D distance
- ST_3DDistance - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the 3D cartesian minimum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DIntersects - Availability: 2.0.0 Tests if two geometries spatially intersect in 3D - only for points, linestrings, polygons, polyhedral surface (area)
- ST_3DLongestLine - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the 3D longest line between two geometries
- ST_3DMaxDistance - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the 3D cartesian maximum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_3DShortestLine - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the 3D shortest line between two geometries
- ST_AsLatLonText - Availability: 2.0 Return the Degrees, Minutes, Seconds representation of the given point.
- ST_AsX3D - Availability: 2.0.0: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML Returns a Geometry in X3D xml node element format: ISO-IEC-19776-1.2-X3DEncodings-XML
- ST_CollectionHomogenize - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the simplest representation of a geometry collection.
- ST_ConcaveHull - Availability: 2.0.0 Computes a possibly concave geometry that contains all input geometry vertices
- ST_FlipCoordinates - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns a version of a geometry with X and Y axis flipped.
- ST_GeomFromGeoJSON - Availability: 2.0.0 requires - JSON-C >= 0.9 Takes as input a geojson representation of a geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_InterpolatePoint - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the interpolated measure of a geometry closest to a point.
- ST_IsValidDetail - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns a valid_detail row stating if a geometry is valid or if not a reason and a location.
- ST_IsValidReason - Availability: 2.0 version taking flags. Returns text stating if a geometry is valid, or a reason for invalidity.
- ST_MakeLine - Availability: 2.0.0 - Support for LineString input elements was introduced Creates a LineString from Point, MultiPoint, or LineString geometries.
- ST_MakeValid - Availability: 2.0.0 Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.
- ST_Node - Availability: 2.0.0 Nodes a collection of lines.
- ST_NumPatches - Availability: 2.0.0 Return the number of faces on a Polyhedral Surface. Will return null for non-polyhedral geometries.
- ST_OffsetCurve - Availability: 2.0 Returns an offset line at a given distance and side from an input line.
- ST_PatchN - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns the Nth geometry (face) of a PolyhedralSurface.
- ST_Perimeter - Availability 2.0.0: Support for geography was introduced Returns the length of the boundary of a polygonal geometry or geography.
- ST_Project - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns a point projected from a start point by a distance and bearing (azimuth).
- ST_RelateMatch - Availability: 2.0.0 Tests if a DE-9IM Intersection Matrix matches an Intersection Matrix pattern
- ST_SharedPaths - Availability: 2.0.0 Returns a collection containing paths shared by the two input linestrings/multilinestrings.
- ST_Snap - Availability: 2.0.0 Snap segments and vertices of input geometry to vertices of a reference geometry.
- ST_Split - Availability: 2.0.0 requires GEOS Returns a collection of geometries created by splitting a geometry by another geometry.
- ST_UnaryUnion - Availability: 2.0.0 Computes the union of the components of a single geometry.

Functions enhanced in PostGIS 2.0

- && - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Returns TRUE if A's 2D bounding box intersects B's 2D bounding box.
- AddGeometryColumn - Enhanced: 2.0.0 use_typmod argument introduced. Defaults to creating typmod geometry column instead of constraint-based. Adds a geometry column to an existing table.
- Box2D - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Returns a BOX2D representing the 2D extent of a geometry.
- Box3D - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Returns a BOX3D representing the 3D extent of a geometry.
- GeometryType - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Returns the type of a geometry as text.
- Populate_Geometry_Columns - Enhanced: 2.0.0 use_typmod optional argument was introduced that allows controlling if columns are created with typmodifiers or with check constraints. Ensures geometry columns are defined with type modifiers or have appropriate spatial constraints.
- ST_3DExtent - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Aggregate function that returns the 3D bounding box of geometries.
- ST_Affine - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Apply a 3D affine transformation to a geometry.
- ST_Area - Enhanced: 2.0.0 - support for 2D polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Returns the area of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_AsBinary - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsBinary - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for higher coordinate dimensions was introduced. Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsBinary - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for specifying endian with geography was introduced. Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsEWKB - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Return the Extended Well-Known Binary (EWKB) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsEWKT - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Geography, Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry with SRID meta data.
- ST_AsGML - Enhanced: 2.0.0 prefix support was introduced. Option 4 for GML3 was introduced to allow using LineString instead of Curve tag for lines. GML3 Support for Polyhedral surfaces and TINS was introduced. Option 32 was introduced to output the box. Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_AsKML - Enhanced: 2.0.0 - Add prefix namespace, use default and named args Return the geometry as a KML element.
- ST_Azimuth - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for geography was introduced. Returns the north-based azimuth of a line between two points.
- ST_Dimension - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces and TINs was introduced. No longer throws an exception if given empty geometry. Returns the topological dimension of a geometry.
- ST_Dump - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the components of a geometry.
- ST_DumpPoints - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the coordinates in a geometry.
- ST_Expand - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Returns a bounding box expanded from another bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_Extent - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Aggregate function that returns the bounding box of geometries.
- ST_Force2D - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Force the geometries into a "2-dimensional mode".
- ST_Force3D - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Force the geometries into XYZ mode. This is an alias for ST_Force3DZ.
- ST_Force3DZ - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Force the geometries into XYZ mode.
- ST_ForceCollection - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Convert the geometry into a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION.
- ST_ForceRHR - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Force the orientation of the vertices in a polygon to follow the Right-Hand-Rule.
- ST_GMLToSQL - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces and TIN was introduced. Return a specified ST_Geometry value from GML representation. This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromGML
- ST_GMLToSQL - Enhanced: 2.0.0 default srid optional parameter added. Return a specified ST_Geometry value from GML representation. This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromGML
- ST_GeomFromEWKB - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces and TIN was introduced. Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Binary representation (EWKB).
- ST_GeomFromEWKT - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces and TIN was introduced. Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Extended Well-Known Text representation (EWKT).
- ST_GeomFromGML - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces and TIN was introduced. Takes as input GML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_GeomFromGML - Enhanced: 2.0.0 default srid optional parameter added. Takes as input GML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_GeometryN - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Return an element of a geometry collection.
- ST_GeometryType - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Returns the SQL-MM type of a geometry as text.
- ST_IsClosed - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Tests if a LineStrings's start and end points are coincident. For a PolyhedralSurface tests if it is closed (volumetric).
- ST_MakeEnvelope - Enhanced: 2.0: Ability to specify an envelope without specifying an SRID was introduced. Creates a rectangular Polygon from minimum and maximum coordinates.
- ST_MakeValid - Enhanced: 2.0.1, speed improvements Attempts to make an invalid geometry valid without losing vertices.
- ST_NPoints - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Returns the number of points (vertices) in a geometry.
- ST_NumGeometries - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Returns the number of elements in a geometry collection.
- ST_Relate - Enhanced: 2.0.0 - added support for specifying boundary node rule. Tests if two geometries have a topological relationship matching an Intersection Matrix pattern, or computes their Intersection Matrix
- ST_Rotate - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Rotates a geometry about an origin point.
- ST_Rotate - Enhanced: 2.0.0 additional parameters for specifying the origin of rotation were added. Rotates a geometry about an origin point.
- ST_RotateX - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Rotates a geometry about the X axis.
- ST_RotateY - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Rotates a geometry about the Y axis.
- ST_RotateZ - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Rotates a geometry about the Z axis.
- ST_Scale - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces, Triangles and TIN was introduced. Scales a geometry by given factors.
- ST_ShiftLongitude - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces and TIN was introduced. Shifts the longitude coordinates of a geometry between -180..180 and 0..360.
- ST_Summary - Enhanced: 2.0.0 added support for geography Returns a text summary of the contents of a geometry.
- ST_Transform - Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced. Return a new geometry with coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system.

Functions changed in PostGIS 2.0

- AddGeometryColumn - Changed: 2.0.0 This function no longer updates geometry_columns since geometry_columns is a view that reads from system catalogs. It by default also does not create constraints, but instead uses the built in type modifier behavior of PostgreSQL. So for example building a wgs84 POINT column with this function is now equivalent to: ALTER TABLE some_table ADD COLUMN geom geometry(Point,4326); Adds a geometry column to an existing table.
- AddGeometryColumn - Changed: 2.0.0 If you require the old behavior of constraints use the default use_typmod, but set it to false. Adds a geometry column to an existing table.
- AddGeometryColumn - Changed: 2.0.0 Views can no longer be manually registered in geometry_columns, however views built against geometry typmod tables geometries and used without wrapper functions will register themselves correctly because they inherit the typmod behavior of their parent table column. Views that use geometry functions that output other geometries will need to be cast to typmod geometries for these view geometry columns to be registered correctly in geometry_columns. Refer to . Adds a geometry column to an existing table.
- DropGeometryColumn - Changed: 2.0.0 This function is provided for backward compatibility. Now that since geometry_columns is now a view against the system catalogs, you can drop a geometry column like any other table column using ALTER TABLE Removes a geometry column from a spatial table.
- DropGeometryTable - Changed: 2.0.0 This function is provided for backward compatibility. Now that since geometry_columns is now a view against the system catalogs, you can drop a table with geometry columns like any other table using DROP TABLE Drops a table and all its references in geometry_columns.
- Populate_Geometry_Columns - Changed: 2.0.0 By default, now uses type modifiers instead of check constraints to constrain geometry types. You can still use check constraint behavior instead by using the new use_typmod and setting it to false. Ensures geometry columns are defined with type modifiers or have appropriate spatial constraints.
- ST_3DExtent - Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions this used to be called ST_Extent3D Aggregate function that returns the 3D bounding box of geometries.
- ST_3DLength - Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions this used to be called ST_Length3D Returns the 3D length of a linear geometry.
- ST_3DMakeBox - Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions this used to be called ST_MakeBox3D Creates a BOX3D defined by two 3D point geometries.
- ST_3DPerimeter - Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions this used to be called ST_Perimeter3D Returns the 3D perimeter of a polygonal geometry.
- ST_AsBinary - Changed: 2.0.0 Inputs to this function can not be unknown -- must be geometry. Constructs such as ST_AsBinary('POINT(1 2)') are no longer valid and you will get an n st_asbinary(unknown) is not unique error. Code like that needs to be changed to ST_AsBinary('POINT(1 2)'::geometry);. If that is not possible, then install legacy.sql. Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsGML - Changed: 2.0.0 use default named args Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_AsGeoJSON - Changed: 2.0.0 support default args and named args. Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.
- ST_AsSVG - Changed: 2.0.0 to use default args and support named args Returns SVG path data for a geometry.
- ST_EndPoint - Changed: 2.0.0 no longer works with single geometry MultiLineStrings. In older versions of PostGIS a single-line MultiLineString would work with this function and return the end point. In 2.0.0 it returns NULL like any other MultiLineString. The old behavior was an undocumented feature, but people who assumed they had their data stored as LINESTRING may experience these returning NULL in 2.0.0. Returns the last point of a LineString or CircularLineString.
- ST_GeomFromText - Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions of PostGIS ST_GeomFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(EMPTY)') was allowed. This is now illegal in PostGIS 2.0.0 to better conform with SQL/MM standards. This should now be written as ST_GeomFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION EMPTY') Return a specified ST_Geometry value from Well-Known Text representation (WKT).
- ST_GeometryN - Changed: 2.0.0 Prior versions would return NULL for singular geometries. This was changed to return the geometry for ST_GeometryN(..,1) case. Return an element of a geometry collection.
- ST_IsEmpty - Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions of PostGIS ST_GeomFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(EMPTY)') was allowed. This is now illegal in PostGIS 2.0.0 to better conform with SQL/MM standards Tests if a geometry is empty.
- ST_Length - Changed: 2.0.0 Breaking change -- in prior versions applying this to a MULTI/POLYGON of type geography would give you the perimeter of the POLYGON/MULTIPOLYGON. In 2.0.0 this was changed to return 0 to be in line with geometry behavior. Please use ST_Perimeter if you want the perimeter of a polygon Returns the 2D length of a linear geometry.
- ST_LocateAlong - Changed: 2.0.0 in prior versions this used to be called ST_Locate_Along_Measure. Returns the point(s) on a geometry that match a measure value.
- ST_LocateBetween - Changed: 2.0.0 - in prior versions this used to be called ST_Locate_Between_Measures. Returns the portions of a geometry that match a measure range.
- ST_NumGeometries - Changed: 2.0.0 In prior versions this would return NULL if the geometry was not a collection/MULTI type. 2.0.0+ now returns 1 for single geometries e.g POLYGON, LINESTRING, POINT. Returns the number of elements in a geometry collection.
- ST_NumInteriorRings - Changed: 2.0.0 - in prior versions it would allow passing a MULTIPOLYGON, returning the number of interior rings of first POLYGON. Returns the number of interior rings (holes) of a Polygon.
- ST_PointN - Changed: 2.0.0 no longer works with single geometry multilinestrings. In older versions of PostGIS -- a single line multilinestring would work happily with this function and return the start point. In 2.0.0 it just returns NULL like any other multilinestring. Returns the Nth point in the first LineString or circular LineString in a geometry.
- ST_StartPoint - Changed: 2.0.0 no longer works with single geometry MultiLineStrings. In older versions of PostGIS a single-line MultiLineString would work happily with this function and return the start point. In 2.0.0 it just returns NULL like any other MultiLineString. The old behavior was an undocumented feature, but people who assumed they had their data stored as LINESTRING may experience these returning NULL in 2.0.0. Returns the first point of a LineString.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 1.5

- && - Availability: 1.5.0 support for geography was introduced. Returns TRUE if A's 2D bounding box intersects B's 2D bounding box.
- PostGIS_LibXML_Version - Availability: 1.5 Returns the version number of the libxml2 library.
- ST_AddMeasure - Availability: 1.5.0 Interpolates measures along a linear geometry.
- ST_AsBinary - Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced. Return the OGC/ISO Well-Known Binary (WKB) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID meta data.
- ST_AsGML - Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced. Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_AsGeoJSON - Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced. Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.
- ST_AsText - Availability: 1.5 - support for geography was introduced. Return the Well-Known Text (WKT) representation of the geometry/geography without SRID metadata.
- ST_Buffer - Availability: 1.5 - ST_Buffer was enhanced to support different endcaps and join types. These are useful for example to convert road linestrings into polygon roads with flat or square edges instead of rounded edges. Thin wrapper for geography was added. Computes a geometry covering all points within a given distance from a geometry.
- ST_ClosestPoint - Availability: 1.5.0 Returns the 2D point on g1 that is closest to g2. This is the first point of the shortest line from one geometry to the other.
- ST_CollectionExtract - Availability: 1.5.0 Given a geometry collection, returns a multi-geometry containing only elements of a specified type.
- ST_Covers - Availability: 1.5 - support for geography was introduced. Tests if every point of B lies in A
- ST_DFullyWithin - Availability: 1.5.0 Tests if two geometries are entirely within a given distance
- ST_DWithin - Availability: 1.5.0 support for geography was introduced Tests if two geometries are within a given distance
- ST_Distance - Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced in 1.5. Speed improvements for planar to better handle large or many vertex geometries Returns the distance between two geometry or geography values.
- ST_DistanceSphere - Availability: 1.5 - support for other geometry types besides points was introduced. Prior versions only work with points. Returns minimum distance in meters between two lon/lat geometries using a spherical earth model.
- ST_DistanceSpheroid - Availability: 1.5 - support for other geometry types besides points was introduced. Prior versions only work with points. Returns the minimum distance between two lon/lat geometries using a spheroidal earth model.
- ST_DumpPoints - Availability: 1.5.0 Returns a set of geometry_dump rows for the coordinates in a geometry.
- ST_Envelope - Availability: 1.5.0 behavior changed to output double precision instead of float4 Returns a geometry representing the bounding box of a geometry.
- ST_Expand - Availability: 1.5.0 behavior changed to output double precision instead of float4 coordinates. Returns a bounding box expanded from another bounding box or a geometry.
- ST_GMLToSQL - Availability: 1.5, requires libxml2 1.6+ Return a specified ST_Geometry value from GML representation. This is an alias name for ST_GeomFromGML
- ST_GeomFromGML - Availability: 1.5, requires libxml2 1.6+ Takes as input GML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_GeomFromKML - Availability: 1.5, requires libxml2 2.6+ Takes as input KML representation of geometry and outputs a PostGIS geometry object
- ST_HausdorffDistance - Availability: 1.5.0 Returns the Hausdorff distance between two geometries.
- ST_Intersection - Availability: 1.5 support for geography data type was introduced. Computes a geometry representing the shared portion of geometries A and B.
- ST_Intersects - Availability: 1.5 support for geography was introduced. Tests if two geometries intersect (they have at least one point in common)
- ST_Length - Availability: 1.5.0 geography support was introduced in 1.5. Returns the 2D length of a linear geometry.
- ST_LongestLine - Availability: 1.5.0 Returns the 2D longest line between two geometries.
- ST_MakeEnvelope - Availability: 1.5 Creates a rectangular Polygon from minimum and maximum coordinates.
- ST_MaxDistance - Availability: 1.5.0 Returns the 2D largest distance between two geometries in projected units.
- ST_ShortestLine - Availability: 1.5.0 Returns the 2D shortest line between two geometries
- ~= - Availability: 1.5.0 changed behavior Returns TRUE if A's bounding box is the same as B's.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 1.4

- Populate_Geometry_Columns - Availability: 1.4.0 Ensures geometry columns are defined with type modifiers or have appropriate spatial constraints.
- ST_Collect - Availability: 1.4.0 - ST_Collect(geomarray) was introduced. ST_Collect was enhanced to handle more geometries faster. Creates a GeometryCollection or Multi* geometry from a set of geometries.
- ST_ContainsProperly - Availability: 1.4.0 Tests if every point of B lies in the interior of A
- ST_GeoHash - Availability: 1.4.0 Return a GeoHash representation of the geometry.
- ST_IsValidReason - Availability: 1.4 Returns text stating if a geometry is valid, or a reason for invalidity.
- ST_LineCrossingDirection - Availability: 1.4 Returns a number indicating the crossing behavior of two LineStrings
- ST_LocateBetweenElevations - Availability: 1.4.0 Returns the portions of a geometry that lie in an elevation (Z) range.
- ST_MakeLine - Availability: 1.4.0 - ST_MakeLine(geomarray) was introduced. ST_MakeLine aggregate functions was enhanced to handle more points faster. Creates a LineString from Point, MultiPoint, or LineString geometries.
- ST_MinimumBoundingCircle - Availability: 1.4.0 Returns the smallest circle polygon that contains a geometry.
- ST_Union - Availability: 1.4.0 - ST_Union was enhanced. ST_Union(geomarray) was introduced and also faster aggregate collection in PostgreSQL. Computes a geometry representing the point-set union of the input geometries.

The functions given below are PostGIS functions that were added or enhanced.

Functions new in PostGIS 1.3

- ST_AsGML - Availability: 1.3.2 Return the geometry as a GML version 2 or 3 element.
- ST_AsGeoJSON - Availability: 1.3.4 Return a geometry or feature in GeoJSON format.
- ST_CurveToLine - Availability: 1.3.0 Converts a geometry containing curves to a linear geometry.
- ST_LineToCurve - Availability: 1.3.0 Converts a linear geometry to a curved geometry.
- ST_SimplifyPreserveTopology - Availability: 1.3.3 Returns a simplified and valid version of a geometry, using the Douglas-Peucker algorithm.