PostGIS 3.2.0dev Manual

DEV (Thu 14 Jan 2021 05:39:31 AM UTC rev. ba2f659 )

The PostGIS Development Group

Abstract

PostGIS is an extension to the PostgreSQL object-relational database system which allows GIS (Geographic Information Systems) objects to be stored in the database. PostGIS includes support for GiST-based R-Tree spatial indexes, and functions for analysis and processing of GIS objects.

This is the manual for version 3.2.0dev

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License. Feel free to use this material any way you like, but we ask that you attribute credit to the PostGIS Project and wherever possible, a link back to http://postgis.net.


Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1. Project Steering Committee
1.2. Core Contributors Present
1.3. Core Contributors Past
1.4. Other Contributors
2. PostGIS Installation
2.1. Short Version
2.2. Compiling and Install from Source
2.2.1. Getting the Source
2.2.2. Install Requirements
2.2.3. Build configuration
2.2.4. Building
2.2.5. Building PostGIS Extensions and Deploying them
2.2.6. Testing
2.2.7. Installation
2.3. Installing and Using the address standardizer
2.3.1. Installing Regex::Assemble
2.4. Installing, Upgrading Tiger Geocoder and loading data
2.4.1. Tiger Geocoder Enabling your PostGIS database: Using Extension
2.4.2. Tiger Geocoder Enabling your PostGIS database: Not Using Extensions
2.4.3. Using Address Standardizer Extension with Tiger geocoder
2.4.4. Loading Tiger Data
2.4.5. Upgrading your Tiger Geocoder Install
2.5. Common Problems during installation
3. PostGIS Administration
3.1. Performance Tuning
3.1.1. Startup
3.1.2. Runtime
3.2. Configuring raster support
3.3. Creating spatial databases
3.3.1. Spatially enable database using EXTENSION
3.3.2. Spatially enable database without using EXTENSION (discouraged)
3.3.3. Create a spatially-enabled database from a template
3.4. Upgrading spatial databases
3.4.1. Soft upgrade
3.4.2. Hard upgrade
4. Data Management
4.1. GIS Objects
4.1.1. OpenGIS WKB and WKT
4.1.2. PostGIS EWKB, EWKT and Canonical Forms
4.1.3. SQL-MM Part 3
4.2. PostGIS Geography Type
4.2.1. Geography Basics
4.2.2. When to use Geography Data type over Geometry data type
4.2.3. Geography Advanced FAQ
4.3. Spatial Tables
4.3.1. Creating a Spatial Table
4.3.2. The GEOMETRY_COLUMNS View
4.3.3. Manually Registering Geometry Columns
4.4. Spatial Reference Systems
4.4.1. SPATIAL_REF_SYS Table
4.4.2. User-Defined Spatial Reference Systems
4.5. Geometry Validation
4.6. Loading Spatial Data
4.6.1. Using SQL to Load Data
4.6.2. Using the Shapefile Loader
4.7. Extracting Spatial Data
4.7.1. Using SQL to Extract Data
4.7.2. Using the Shapefile Dumper
4.8. Building Spatial Indexes
4.8.1. GiST Indexes
4.8.2. BRIN Indexes
4.8.3. SP-GiST Indexes
4.8.4. Tuning Index Usage
5. Spatial Queries
5.1. Determining Spatial Relationships
5.1.1. Dimensionally Extended 9-Intersection Model
5.1.2. Named Spatial Relationships
5.1.3. General Spatial Relationships
5.2. Taking Advantage of Indexes
5.3. Examples of Spatial SQL
6. Performance Tips
6.1. Small tables of large geometries
6.1.1. Problem description
6.1.2. Workarounds
6.2. CLUSTERing on geometry indices
6.3. Avoiding dimension conversion
7. Building Applications
7.1. Using MapServer
7.1.1. Basic Usage
7.1.2. Frequently Asked Questions
7.1.3. Advanced Usage
7.1.4. Examples
7.2. Java Clients (JDBC)
7.3. C Clients (libpq)
7.3.1. Text Cursors
7.3.2. Binary Cursors
8. PostGIS Reference
8.1. PostGIS Geometry/Geography/Box Data Types
8.2. Table Management Functions
8.3. Geometry Constructors
8.4. Geometry Accessors
8.5. Geometry Editors
8.6. Geometry Validation
8.7. Spatial Reference System Functions
8.8. Geometry Input
8.8.1. Well-Known Text (WKT)
8.8.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB)
8.8.3. Other Formats
8.9. Geometry Output
8.9.1. Well-Known Text (WKT)
8.9.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB)
8.9.3. Other Formats
8.10. Operators
8.10.1. Bounding Box Operators
8.10.2. Distance Operators
8.11. Spatial Relationships
8.11.1. Topological Relationships
8.11.2. Distance Relationships
8.12. Measurement Functions
8.13. Overlay Functions
8.14. Geometry Processing
8.15. Affine Transformations
8.16. Clustering Functions
8.17. Bounding Box Functions
8.18. Linear Referencing
8.19. Trajectory Functions
8.20. SFCGAL Functions
8.21. Long Transaction Support
8.22. Version Functions
8.23. Grand Unified Custom Variables (GUCs)
8.24. Troubleshooting Functions
9. PostGIS Frequently Asked Questions
10. Topology
10.1. Topology Types
10.2. Topology Domains
10.3. Topology and TopoGeometry Management
10.4. Topology Statistics Management
10.5. Topology Constructors
10.6. Topology Editors
10.7. Topology Accessors
10.8. Topology Processing
10.9. TopoGeometry Constructors
10.10. TopoGeometry Editors
10.11. TopoGeometry Accessors
10.12. TopoGeometry Outputs
10.13. Topology Spatial Relationships
11. Raster Data Management, Queries, and Applications
11.1. Loading and Creating Rasters
11.1.1. Using raster2pgsql to load rasters
11.1.2. Creating rasters using PostGIS raster functions
11.2. Raster Catalogs
11.2.1. Raster Columns Catalog
11.2.2. Raster Overviews
11.3. Building Custom Applications with PostGIS Raster
11.3.1. PHP Example Outputting using ST_AsPNG in concert with other raster functions
11.3.2. ASP.NET C# Example Outputting using ST_AsPNG in concert with other raster functions
11.3.3. Java console app that outputs raster query as Image file
11.3.4. Use PLPython to dump out images via SQL
11.3.5. Outputting Rasters with PSQL
12. Raster Reference
12.1. Raster Support Data types
12.2. Raster Management
12.3. Raster Constructors
12.4. Raster Accessors
12.5. Raster Band Accessors
12.6. Raster Pixel Accessors and Setters
12.7. Raster Editors
12.8. Raster Band Editors
12.9. Raster Band Statistics and Analytics
12.10. Raster Inputs
12.11. Raster Outputs
12.12. Raster Processing: Map Algebra
12.13. Built-in Map Algebra Callback Functions
12.14. Raster Processing: DEM (Elevation)
12.15. Raster Processing: Raster to Geometry
12.16. Raster Operators
12.17. Raster and Raster Band Spatial Relationships
12.18. Raster Tips
12.18.1. Out-DB Rasters
13. PostGIS Raster Frequently Asked Questions
14. PostGIS Extras
14.1. Address Standardizer
14.1.1. How the Parser Works
14.1.2. Address Standardizer Types
14.1.3. Address Standardizer Tables
14.1.4. Address Standardizer Functions
14.2. Tiger Geocoder
15. PostGIS Special Functions Index
15.1. PostGIS Aggregate Functions
15.2. PostGIS Window Functions
15.3. PostGIS SQL-MM Compliant Functions
15.4. PostGIS Geography Support Functions
15.5. PostGIS Raster Support Functions
15.6. PostGIS Geometry / Geography / Raster Dump Functions
15.7. PostGIS Box Functions
15.8. PostGIS Functions that support 3D
15.9. PostGIS Curved Geometry Support Functions
15.10. PostGIS Polyhedral Surface Support Functions
15.11. PostGIS Function Support Matrix
15.12. New, Enhanced or changed PostGIS Functions
15.12.1. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.1
15.12.2. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 3.0
15.12.3. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.5
15.12.4. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.4
15.12.5. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.3
15.12.6. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.2
15.12.7. PostGIS functions breaking changes in 2.2
15.12.8. PostGIS Functions new or enhanced in 2.1
15.12.9. PostGIS functions breaking changes in 2.1
15.12.10. PostGIS Functions new, behavior changed, or enhanced in 2.0
15.12.11. PostGIS Functions changed behavior in 2.0
15.12.12. PostGIS Functions new, behavior changed, or enhanced in 1.5
15.12.13. PostGIS Functions new, behavior changed, or enhanced in 1.4
15.12.14. PostGIS Functions new in 1.3
16. Reporting Problems
16.1. Reporting Software Bugs
16.2. Reporting Documentation Issues
A. Appendix
A.1. Release 3.1.0beta1
A.2. Release 3.1.0alpha3
A.3. Release 3.1.0alpha2
A.4. Release 3.1.0alpha1
A.5. Release 3.0.0
A.6. Release 3.0.0rc2
A.7. Release 3.0.0rc1
A.8. Release 3.0.0beta1
A.9. Release 3.0.0alpha4
A.10. Release 3.0.0alpha3
A.11. Release 3.0.0alpha2
A.12. Release 3.0.0alpha1
A.13. Release 2.5.0
A.14. Release 2.4.5
A.15. Release 2.4.4
A.16. Release 2.4.3
A.17. Release 2.4.2
A.18. Release 2.4.1
A.19. Release 2.4.0
A.20. Release 2.3.3
A.21. Release 2.3.2
A.22. Release 2.3.1
A.23. Release 2.3.0
A.24. Release 2.2.2
A.25. Release 2.2.1
A.26. Release 2.2.0
A.27. Release 2.1.8
A.28. Release 2.1.7
A.29. Release 2.1.6
A.30. Release 2.1.5
A.31. Release 2.1.4
A.32. Release 2.1.3
A.33. Release 2.1.2
A.34. Release 2.1.1
A.35. Release 2.1.0
A.36. Release 2.0.5
A.37. Release 2.0.4
A.38. Release 2.0.3
A.39. Release 2.0.2
A.40. Release 2.0.1
A.41. Release 2.0.0
A.42. Release 1.5.4
A.43. Release 1.5.3
A.44. Release 1.5.2
A.45. Release 1.5.1
A.46. Release 1.5.0
A.47. Release 1.4.0
A.48. Release 1.3.6
A.49. Release 1.3.5
A.50. Release 1.3.4
A.51. Release 1.3.3
A.52. Release 1.3.2
A.53. Release 1.3.1
A.54. Release 1.3.0
A.55. Release 1.2.1
A.56. Release 1.2.0
A.57. Release 1.1.6
A.58. Release 1.1.5
A.59. Release 1.1.4
A.60. Release 1.1.3
A.61. Release 1.1.2
A.62. Release 1.1.1
A.63. Release 1.1.0
A.64. Release 1.0.6
A.65. Release 1.0.5
A.66. Release 1.0.4
A.67. Release 1.0.3
A.68. Release 1.0.2
A.69. Release 1.0.1
A.70. Release 1.0.0
A.71. Release 1.0.0RC6
A.72. Release 1.0.0RC5
A.73. Release 1.0.0RC4
A.74. Release 1.0.0RC3
A.75. Release 1.0.0RC2
A.76. Release 1.0.0RC1