## Name

ST_ConcaveHull — Computes a possibly concave geometry that contains all input geometry vertices

## Synopsis

geometry ST_ConcaveHull(geometry param_geom, float param_pctconvex, boolean param_allow_holes = false);

## Beschreibung

A concave hull is a (usually) concave geometry which contains the input, and whose vertices are a subset of the input vertices. In the general case the concave hull is a Polygon. The concave hull of two or more collinear points is a two-point LineString. The concave hull of one or more identical points is a Point. The polygon will not contain holes unless the optional param_allow_holes argument is specified as true.

One can think of a concave hull as "shrink-wrapping" a set of points. This is different to the convex hull, which is more like wrapping a rubber band around the points. A concave hull generally has a smaller area and represents a more natural boundary for the input points.

The param_pctconvex controls the concaveness of the computed hull. A value of 1 produces the convex hull. Values between 1 and 0 produce hulls of increasing concaveness. A value of 0 produces a hull with maximum concaveness (but still a single polygon). Choosing a suitable value depends on the nature of the input data, but often values between 0.3 and 0.1 produce reasonable results.

 Technically, the param_pctconvex determines a length as a fraction of the difference between the longest and shortest edges in the Delaunay Triangulation of the input points. Edges longer than this length are "eroded" from the triangulation. The triangles remaining form the concave hull.

For point and linear inputs, the hull will enclose all the points of the inputs. For polygonal inputs, the hull will enclose all the points of the input and also all the areas covered by the input. If you want a point-wise hull of a polygonal input, convert it to points first using ST_Points.

This is not an aggregate function. To compute the concave hull of a set of geometries use ST_Collect (e.g. ST_ConcaveHull( ST_Collect( geom ), 0.80).

Verfügbarkeit: 2.0.0

Enhanced: 3.3.0, GEOS native implementation enabled for GEOS 3.11+

## Beispiele

Konvexe Hülle eines MultiLineString und eines MultiPoint

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_ConcaveHull(
'MULTIPOINT ((10 72), (53 76), (56 66), (63 58), (71 51), (81 48), (91 46), (101 45), (111 46), (121 47), (131 50), (140 55), (145 64), (144 74), (135 80), (125 83), (115 85), (105 87), (95 89), (85 91), (75 93), (65 95), (55 98), (45 102), (37 107), (29 114), (22 122), (19 132), (18 142), (21 151), (27 160), (35 167), (44 172), (54 175), (64 178), (74 180), (84 181), (94 181), (104 181), (114 181), (124 181), (134 179), (144 177), (153 173), (162 168), (171 162), (177 154), (182 145), (184 135), (139 132), (136 142), (128 149), (119 153), (109 155), (99 155), (89 155), (79 153), (69 150), (61 144), (63 134), (72 128), (82 125), (92 123), (102 121), (112 119), (122 118), (132 116), (142 113), (151 110), (161 106), (170 102), (178 96), (185 88), (189 78), (190 68), (189 58), (185 49), (179 41), (171 34), (162 29), (153 25), (143 23), (133 21), (123 19), (113 19), (102 19), (92 19), (82 19), (72 21), (62 22), (52 25), (43 29), (33 34), (25 41), (19 49), (14 58), (21 73), (31 74), (42 74), (173 134), (161 134), (150 133), (97 104), (52 117), (157 156), (94 171), (112 106), (169 73), (58 165), (149 40), (70 33), (147 157), (48 153), (140 96), (47 129), (173 55), (144 86), (159 67), (150 146), (38 136), (111 170), (124 94), (26 59), (60 41), (71 162), (41 64), (88 110), (122 34), (151 97), (157 56), (39 146), (88 33), (159 45), (47 56), (138 40), (129 165), (33 48), (106 31), (169 147), (37 122), (71 109), (163 89), (37 156), (82 170), (180 72), (29 142), (46 41), (59 155), (124 106), (157 80), (175 82), (56 50), (62 116), (113 95), (144 167))',
0.1 ) );
---st_astext--
POLYGON ((18 142, 21 151, 27 160, 35 167, 44 172, 54 175, 64 178, 74 180, 84 181, 94 181, 104 181, 114 181, 124 181, 134 179, 144 177, 153 173, 162 168, 171 162, 177 154, 182 145, 184 135, 173 134, 161 134, 150 133, 139 132, 136 142, 128 149, 119 153, 109 155, 99 155, 89 155, 79 153, 69 150, 61 144, 63 134, 72 128, 82 125, 92 123, 102 121, 112 119, 122 118, 132 116, 142 113, 151 110, 161 106, 170 102, 178 96, 185 88, 189 78, 190 68, 189 58, 185 49, 179 41, 171 34, 162 29, 153 25, 143 23, 133 21, 123 19, 113 19, 102 19, 92 19, 82 19, 72 21, 62 22, 52 25, 43 29, 33 34, 25 41, 19 49, 14 58, 10 72, 21 73, 31 74, 42 74, 53 76, 56 66, 63 58, 71 51, 81 48, 91 46, 101 45, 111 46, 121 47, 131 50, 140 55, 145 64, 144 74, 135 80, 125 83, 115 85, 105 87, 95 89, 85 91, 75 93, 65 95, 55 98, 45 102, 37 107, 29 114, 22 122, 19 132, 18 142))

Konvexe Hülle eines MultiLineString und eines MultiPoint

SELECT ST_AsText( ST_ConcaveHull(
'MULTIPOINT ((132 64), (114 64), (99 64), (81 64), (63 64), (57 49), (52 36), (46 20), (37 20), (26 20), (32 36), (39 55), (43 69), (50 84), (57 100), (63 118), (68 133), (74 149), (81 164), (88 180), (101 180), (112 180), (119 164), (126 149), (132 131), (139 113), (143 100), (150 84), (157 69), (163 51), (168 36), (174 20), (163 20), (150 20), (143 36), (139 49), (132 64), (99 151), (92 138), (88 124), (81 109), (74 93), (70 82), (83 82), (99 82), (112 82), (126 82), (121 96), (114 109), (110 122), (103 138), (99 151), (34 27), (43 31), (48 44), (46 58), (52 73), (63 73), (61 84), (72 71), (90 69), (101 76), (123 71), (141 62), (166 27), (150 33), (159 36), (146 44), (154 53), (152 62), (146 73), (134 76), (143 82), (141 91), (130 98), (126 104), (132 113), (128 127), (117 122), (112 133), (119 144), (108 147), (119 153), (110 171), (103 164), (92 171), (86 160), (88 142), (79 140), (72 124), (83 131), (79 118), (68 113), (63 102), (68 93), (35 45))',
0.15, true ) );
---st_astext--
POLYGON ((43 69, 50 84, 57 100, 63 118, 68 133, 74 149, 81 164, 88 180, 101 180, 112 180, 119 164, 126 149, 132 131, 139 113, 143 100, 150 84, 157 69, 163 51, 168 36, 174 20, 163 20, 150 20, 143 36, 139 49, 132 64, 114 64, 99 64, 81 64, 63 64, 57 49, 52 36, 46 20, 37 20, 26 20, 32 36, 35 45, 39 55, 43 69), (88 124, 81 109, 74 93, 83 82, 99 82, 112 82, 121 96, 114 109, 110 122, 103 138, 92 138, 88 124))

 polygon_hull points_hull

Comparing a concave hull of a Polygon to the concave hull of the constituent points. The hull respects the boundary of the polygon, whereas the points-based hull does not.

WITH data(geom) AS (VALUES
('POLYGON ((10 90, 39 85, 61 79, 50 90, 80 80, 95 55, 25 60, 90 45, 70 16, 63 38, 60 10, 50 30, 43 27, 30 10, 20 20, 10 90))'::geometry)
)
SELECT  ST_ConcaveHull( geom,            0.1) AS polygon_hull,
ST_ConcaveHull( ST_Points(geom), 0.1) AS points_hull
FROM data;

Verwendung mit ST_Collect zur Berechnung der konvexen Hüllen einer Geometrie.

-- Compute estimate of infected area based on point observations
SELECT disease_type,
ST_ConcaveHull( ST_Collect(obs_pnt), 0.3 ) AS geom
FROM disease_obs
GROUP BY disease_type;