ST_Transform — Return a new geometry with its coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference.


geometry ST_Transform(geometry g1, integer srid);

geometry ST_Transform(geometry geom, text to_proj);

geometry ST_Transform(geometry geom, text from_proj, text to_proj);

geometry ST_Transform(geometry geom, text from_proj, integer to_srid);


Returns a new geometry with its coordinates transformed to a different spatial reference system. The destination spatial reference to_srid may be identified by a valid SRID integer parameter (i.e. it must exist in the spatial_ref_sys table). Alternatively, a spatial reference defined as a PROJ.4 string can be used for to_proj and/or from_proj, however these methods are not optimized. If the destination spatial reference system is expressed with a PROJ.4 string instead of an SRID, the SRID of the output geometry will be set to zero. With the exception of functions with from_proj, input geometries must have a defined SRID.

ST_Transform is often confused with ST_SetSRID(). ST_Transform actually changes the coordinates of a geometry from one spatial reference system to another, while ST_SetSRID() simply changes the SRID identifier of the geometry.


Requires PostGIS be compiled with Proj support. Use PostGIS_Full_Version to confirm you have proj support compiled in.


If using more than one transformation, it is useful to have a functional index on the commonly used transformations to take advantage of index usage.


Prior to 1.3.4, this function crashes if used with geometries that contain CURVES. This is fixed in 1.3.4+

Enhanced: 2.0.0 support for Polyhedral surfaces was introduced.

Enhanced: 2.3.0 support for direct PROJ.4 text was introduced.

This method implements the SQL/MM specification. SQL-MM 3: 5.1.6

This method supports Circular Strings and Curves

This function supports Polyhedral surfaces.


Change Massachusetts state plane US feet geometry to WGS 84 long lat

SELECT ST_AsText(ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((743238 2967416,743238 2967450,
	743265 2967450,743265.625 2967416,743238 2967416))',2249),4326)) As wgs_geom;

 POLYGON((-71.1776848522251 42.3902896512902,-71.1776843766326 42.3903829478009,
-71.1775844305465 42.3903826677917,-71.1775825927231 42.3902893647987,-71.177684
8522251 42.3902896512902));
(1 row)

--3D Circular String example
SELECT ST_AsEWKT(ST_Transform(ST_GeomFromEWKT('SRID=2249;CIRCULARSTRING(743238 2967416 1,743238 2967450 2,743265 2967450 3,743265.625 2967416 3,743238 2967416 4)'),4326));

 SRID=4326;CIRCULARSTRING(-71.1776848522251 42.3902896512902 1,-71.1776843766326 42.3903829478009 2,
 -71.1775844305465 42.3903826677917 3,
 -71.1775825927231 42.3902893647987 3,-71.1776848522251 42.3902896512902 4)


Example of creating a partial functional index. For tables where you are not sure all the geometries will be filled in, its best to use a partial index that leaves out null geometries which will both conserve space and make your index smaller and more efficient.

CREATE INDEX idx_the_geom_26986_parcels
  ON parcels
  USING gist
  (ST_Transform(the_geom, 26986))
  WHERE the_geom IS NOT NULL;

Examples of using PROJ.4 text to transform with custom spatial references.

-- Find intersection of two polygons near the North pole, using a custom Gnomic projection
-- See
 WITH data AS (
     ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((170 50,170 72,-130 72,-130 50,170 50))', 4326) AS p1,
     ST_GeomFromText('POLYGON((-170 68,-170 90,-141 90,-141 68,-170 68))', 4326) AS p2,
     '+proj=gnom +ellps=WGS84 +lat_0=70 +lon_0=-160 +no_defs'::text AS gnom
     ST_Intersection(ST_Transform(p1, gnom), ST_Transform(p2, gnom)),
   gnom, 4326))
 FROM data;
  POLYGON((-170 74.053793645338,-141 73.4268621378904,-141 68,-170 68,-170 74.053793645338))

Configuring transformation behaviour

Sometimes coordinate transformation involving a grid-shift can fail, for example if PROJ.4 has not been built with grid-shift files or the coordinate does not lie within the range for which the grid shift is defined. By default, PostGIS will throw an error if a grid shift file is not present, but this behaviour can be configured on a per-SRID basis either by testing different to_proj values of PROJ.4 text, or altering the proj4text value within the spatial_ref_sys table.

For example, the proj4text parameter +datum=NAD87 is a shorthand form for the following +nadgrids parameter:


The @ prefix means no error is reported if the files are not present, but if the end of the list is reached with no file having been appropriate (ie. found and overlapping) then an error is issued.

If, conversely, you wanted to ensure that at least the standard files were present, but that if all files were scanned without a hit a null transformation is applied you could use:


The null grid shift file is a valid grid shift file covering the whole world and applying no shift. So for a complete example, if you wanted to alter PostGIS so that transformations to SRID 4267 that didn't lie within the correct range did not throw an ERROR, you would use the following:

UPDATE spatial_ref_sys SET proj4text = '+proj=longlat +ellps=clrk66 +nadgrids=@conus,@alaska,@ntv2_0.gsb,@ntv1_can.dat,null +no_defs' WHERE srid = 4267;

See Also

PostGIS_Full_Version, ST_AsText, ST_SetSRID, UpdateGeometrySRID